Summary of Different Topic of Envirnomental

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Wast, envirnomental problem or potential resource?
the definition of waste is based on the concept of "discard", which is the necessary and sufficient condition for an object, a good or material is classified as waste. The production of waste is really huge, 2.3 bilion tonnes per year, that means around 3.5 milion tonnes per capita. The legislation of European Union about the waste is in the “The Sixth Environment Action Programme” focuses on four priority areas for action: climate change; biodiversity; environment and health; and sustainable management of resources and wastes. In particular about the waste the objective is to reduce the quantity going to final disposal by 20 % by 2010 and 50 % by 2050. the achievement of this purpose can be obtained by: some strategies for the sustainable management of resources, with the reduction of consume, taxation , establishing a strategy for the recycling of waste and so on. The waste hierarchy is reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies . The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. In the EU legislation there is the Waste Framework Directive 98/2008, The Directive establishes a legal framework for the treatment of waste in the EU. It sets the basic concepts and definitions related to waste management and lays down waste management principles for all other EU legislation related to waste, such as the "polluter pays principle" and the "waste hierarchy". It sets the framework for waste management in Member States, including the extended producers responsibility. The principle of EU legislation are the Prevention, above-mentioned polluter pays principle, producer responsibility , proximity principle, self-sufficiently principle. The most important principle is the first one because if we can reduce the amount of waste generated in the first place and reduce its hazardousness by reducing the presence of dangerous substances in products, then disposing of it will automatically become simple. The strategy adopted by the European Union and implemented in Italy by the Ronchi Decree of '97. In this we can find different priority: the first level is the need to prevent the production of waste and reduce their aggressiveness, tthe second is the need to re-use and, if you cannot reuse, recycle materials. Finally, only with regard to the material that has not been possible to reuse and recycle and then the undersize (representing about 15% of the total), pose the two solutions of energy recovery systems using cold or hot, as the bio-oxidation , gasification, pyrolysis and incineration or landfilling start. So even in an ideal situation of complete recycling and recovery will be a percentage of residual waste to be disposed of in landfills or be oxidized to remove them and recover energy. From an ideal point of view as incineration and landfills undifferentiated should be limited to a minimum. The lack of effective integrated policies for the reduction, recycling and reuse of landfill are still the first solution applied in Italy. The problem is that given the large production of waste products, a major expansion of recycling, landfill, which are the most problematic aspect of the elimination of waste, decrease very slowly. The European Commission has in fact decided to proceed against Italy in nine cases of infringement of EU law designed to protect people and the environment against the risk of the harmful effects of waste.In six cases, even Italy has not complied with the decisions taken against it by the European Court of Justice and other Commission takes Italy before the European Court of Justice for failing to adopt and notification of the plans for waste management of different Italian regions and provinces. These plans are an essential tool to ensure a safe waste management and environmentally responsible and they are mandatory. The problem of waste in Italy and in particular...
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