Chapter 1: Defining Culture and Identities
Aboriginals are the native people of Australia.
Co-culture/subculture is a group that exists within a culture. Usually based on social class, ethnicity or geographic region.
Cultural identity are people who identify themselves with a culture.
Cultural studies is an approach that attempts to develop an ideal personification of the culture. This ideal is used to explain the actions of individuals in the culture.
Culture is the totality of a large group’s thoughts, behaviors and values that are socially transmitted. The groups has to be large enough to be transmitted over the course of generations.
Ethnic identity is the identification with the ethnic group, they share the same heritage and culture.
Ethnicity refers to a group of people with the same heritage and culture. They share the common culture passed on through generations.
Ethnography is the direct observation of customary behavior of a culture.
Heroes are a real or imaginary persons who are the role model for the culture.
Myths are stories representing a culture’s values, told from one generation to the next as a guide for living.
Othering is the degrading of cultures or groups outside its own. It creates artificial divisions between cultures by labeling languages that emphasizes power relations and domination.
Race is biologically defined as groups who share the same heritage and physical characteristics. They are also sociohistorically defined by unstable social meanings.
Reference group is a group to which one aspires to attain membership.
Rituals are a social and essential collective activity within a culture.
Subgroup is a group based on skills. Just like a culture, it provides patterns of behavior and values.
Symbols are verbal and nonverbal communication that is used as a language.
Values are a central belief or a belief system that shapes the goal and motivations of a person.
White privileges is the advantages White people have living in a White culture.
*The word God is used throughout this chapter, but the intent is to honor all religions.
Chapter 2: Understanding Face-To-Face and Mediated Communication Channel refers to the means by which the encoded message is transmitted.
Communication can vary by culture, so what is competence in one culture, may not be competence in another culture. Confucianism emphasizes virtue, selflessness, duty, patriotism, hard work and respect for your family and society. The Western culture and communication is to keep public and private lives separate. - There are five effects on interpersonal communication:
1. Particularism: no universal pattern of rules governing relationships.
2. Role of Intermediaries: rituals should be followed in establishing relationships.
3. Reciprocity: complementary obligations are the base of relationships.
4. In-group/Out-group Distinction: these influences every aspect of the Chineseculture. In-group members engage in freer and deeper talk and may find it difficult to have relationships with out-group members.
5. Overlap of Personal and Public Relationships: business and pleasure are mixed: frequent contacts lead to common experiences. Context is the final component of communication. Generally, it can be defined as the environment in which the communication takes place and helps define itself. Decoding is the opposite process of encoding and just as much as an active process. The receiver is actively involved in the communication process. Encoding is the process of putting an idea into a symbol.
Feedback refers to that portion of the receiver response of which the source has knowledge. It makes communication a two-way or an interactive process. Feedback is also a part of the receiver response. Hate speech includes threats or verbal slurs directed against a specific group. Honorific is a form of direct address used in...