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Land Reform

The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) was a land reform law mandated by Republic Act No.6657. According to RA 6657, CARP aims for more equitable distribution and ownership of land. Section 3 of RA 6657 defined agrarian reform as the redistribution of lands, regardless of crops or fruits produced to farmers and regular farm workers who are landless and all other arrangement alternative to the physical redistribution of lands, production or profit-sharing, labor administration and the distribution of shares of stocks. The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL) of 1998 shall cover regardless of tenurial arrangement and commodity produced. The distribution of all lands covered by CARL shall be implemented immediately and completed within 10 years.

Aspects of Agrarian Reform
* Economic- introduction of markets for agricultural land, free movement of agricultural goods within the country and across boarder, free market for retailing of agricultural goods, prescription of reasonable minimum wage and removal of subsidies inputs to agriculture. * Political- top-priority goal of government and a product of deliberate political decisions and is a political process. * Socio-cultural- multifaceted program, it could be political, economic or social depending upon the nature and the immensity of the problems posed and ideological orientations. * Religious- land reform has religious facet on the arguments which is God made all for his children and God given right to use and enjoy the fruits of the earth. * Moral- land owner has been more compensated for his investment on land. * Legal- utilized as an instrument to achieve socio-economic political goals.

Arguments for Land Reform
* Simplified Bureaucracy- the poor argues to secure formal property rights such as land titles. * Participation of the Poor- political and legal reforms within countries will help to include the poor in formal legal and economic system, increase the poor’s ability to access credit and contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. * Harmonizing Conflicting Laws- the need to alleviate conflicting land laws, particularly in former colonies where formal and informal land systems may exist in tension with each other. * Environmental Benefits- focus on the potential environmental benefits of reform.

Arguments against Land Reform
* Uneconomic Scale- fragmentation of landholdings; wholesale reduction in the size of farm units. * Small Farmer’s Negative Economic Tendencies- farmers who were given lands in the past have either sold their lands or not have been able to pay the land given to them. * Unproductive Possibilities- small land owners are people who have sources of income to complement main sources of income for the needs of their families. * Politicized Reform- many of those opposed to land reform we all know that it is a political process many are nervous as to the underlying motivations of those initiating the reform. * Factional Conflicts- economic and social benefits of formalized land rights are often touted some reforms are either ineffective or may cause further hardship or conflict. * Elite Capture- arguments focus on concerns over equity issues and potential elite capture of land and particularly focused on greater land formalization. * Compensation- the redistribution of land will not be use productively and that owners of expropriated land will not be compensated.

Models of Implementing Agrarian Reform
* State-Led Model- led to the redistribution of one third or more of total agricultural land. Their demand for land often remains dormant until they recognize a genuine opportunity for progress. * Market-Led Model- had not led to a genuine redistribution of wealth. The decentralization of market-led programs down to local government has usually catered to the power of land lords and capitalist farmers. The organizations that the landless have to...
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