A. “Sultan Muhamad Al Fateh, Penakluk Konstantinopel” (2008) by Abdul Latip Talib (PTS Litera Utama Sdn.Bhd). B. “Sultan Muhammad Al-Fatih Dan Pembukaan Istanbul 1453M” by Hasrizal Abdul Jamil (2010). C. “Seminar Kepimpinan Islam: Legasi 3 Kuasa” on 11th May 2013 at Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia.
WHO IS MUHAMMAD AL FATEH?
1.Before we embark in this paper of leadership, a bit of introduction about the leader himself. Sultan Muhammad Al-Fateh was born on 29th Mar 1432 at Adrianapolis (a place now known as Adrionaple, in Edirne, Turkey). He was the ruler of Ottoman Empire at the age of 19 and rule for 30 years (1451 – 1481). He died at the age of 49 due to been poisoned by one of his doctor (Ref A).
WHAT WAS HIS KNOWN ABOUT?
2.He was known as the Islamic Warrior that conquers Constantinople in 29 May 1453. That was how he was given the nick name “Al Fateh” means “the opener” as he is the one that open up Constantinople.
3.To analyse the leadership qualities possessed by Sultan Muhammad Al-Fateh based on concept of leadership model and style.
THE CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP
4.There are a lot of definitions and theories of leadership found in books and internet. It seems that leadership is a broad subject and can be look from many angles. For the purpose of this paper, the concept of leadership will be structured as follows:
a.Definitions of Leadership.
b.Types of Leadership Style.
c.Qualities of a Good Leadership.
d.Theories of Leadership – Great Man Theories.
DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP
5.As Lt Col Clark Smith (DS 30) said in his article about “Saddam Hussein – A Leadership Study”, “defining leadership is no easy task”. After looking some of the definitions, I have chosen a few leadership definitions that would define Sultan Muhammad Al-Fateh’s leadership:
a.Chemers M (1997) described leadership as “a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task".
b.“…leadership is a complex phenomenon that touches on many other important organizational, social and personal processes. It depends on a process of influence, whereby people are inspired to work towards group goals, not through coercion, but through personal motivation.” (Bolden, 2004, p. 5)
c.“Leadership over human beings is exercised when persons with certain motives and purposes mobilize, in competition or conflict with others, institutional, political, psychological, and other resources so as to arouse, engage, and satisfy the motives of followers.” (Burns, 1978, p. 18)
d.“Leadership should be defined in terms of the ability to build and maintain a group that performs well relative to its competition.” (Hogan & Kaiser, 2005, p. 172)
e.“Leadership may be considered as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement.” (Stogdill, 1950: 3)
f.“Leadership is the behavior of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal.” (Hemphill & Coons, 1957: 7)
g.“Leadership is the accomplishment of a goal through the direction of human assistants. A leader is one who successfully marshals his human collaborators to achieve particular ends.” (Prentice, 1961: 143)
6.My conclusion and analysis of the definitions above, that leadership are:
a.The ability to motivate and influence a group of people to work together to achieve a common goal.
b.The ability of a leader to maintain a certain discipline in a group.
c.The way or style a leader behaves to lead a group and navigate his command to achieve their goal.
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE
7.There are a lot of leadership styles that been research by academician. In this subject, I have chosen a few leadership styles that describe some of Sultan Muhammad Al-Fateh’s leadership: