Sullivan's Interpersonal Theory

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Abraham Maslow’s Holistic-Dynamic Theory of Personality
ABRAHAM MASLOW’S HOLISTIC-DYNAMIC THEORY OF PERSONALITY

Abstract:
Personality has been studied in regards to various psychological approaches including psychoanalytical theories, learning theories, dispositional theories and humanistic psychology theories among others. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) developed theories of personality from a humanistic psychological standpoint. His holistic-dynamic theory of personality advocates that individuals require the fulfillment of certain fundamental needs in order to develop their personality and use their intelligence efficiently, acquire higher functioning and problem solving proficiently. Basic needs consisted of safety, love and respect. Needs were considered different from manners or habits used in everyday life because manners and habits can be easily cast aside or disregarded and often the setting aside of everyday manners comes as a relief to an individual; the same cannot be said for fundamental needs. A more complex hierarchy of needs addressed the more comprehensive concepts of belongingness, esteem, self-esteem and self-actualization among others. From a psychological application perspective, the idea of meeting fundamental needs in individuals is used in holistic-dynamic applications in the work and home environments in contemporary society in relation to Maslow’s basic needs hierarchy and the additional concepts of vitality, activity and rest; all contributing toward self-actualization within individuals. Without the gratification of having these fundamental needs met, individuals will suffer frustration and eventually psychological “sickness”. Within the work environment, 3.

Abraham Maslow’s Holistic-Dynamic Theory of Personality
individuals experience boredom, lack of energy, low self-esteem and personal and professional problems seems insurmountable.

In the field of theoretical psychology, human behavior is often described in terms of differing theories of personality. Personality is often considered as the “heart of psychology” as it is concerned with the basic aspects and adaptations through which people interact with others and with the conditions in their lives. There are several theories in regards to personality including psychoanalytic theory (through Freud, Jung, and Adler among many others), learning theory (Skinner, Bandura and Rotter for example), dispositional theories (Allport, Cattell and Eysenck for example) and humanistic theories (through Rogers and Maslow) (Ehrenreich, 1997). Abraham Maslow was considered one of the founding fathers of humanistic psychology and his most popular and still implemented research refers to personality in regards to the holistic dynamic theory and view of human behavior. Basically, Maslow “saw an innate goodness in human beings, who seek to achieve an ideal state of normality through successful need gratification” (Bailey, 2001, p. 58). Overall, Maslow believed that people became more efficient, functioned better, used their intelligence more usefully and reached correct conclusions when problem solving more often when they were given safety, love and respect (Bailey, 2001).

In Maslow’s article regarding “The Instinctoid Nature of Basic Needs”, he distinguished between the basic needs of safety, love, and respect and the reflecting social conventions of manners and habits. Maslow wrote that “we learn to eat three times a day, say ‘Thank you,’ use 4.

Abraham Maslow’s Holistic-Dynamic Theory of Personality
forks and spoons, table and chair. We are forced to wear clothes, shows, to sleep in a bed and night, and to speak English. We eat cows and sheep but not dogs and cats. We keep clean, compete for grades, and yearn for money. And yet any and all of these powerful habits can be frustrated without hurt and occasionally even with positive benefit. Under certain circumstances, as on a canoe or camping trip, we acknowledge their extrinsic nature by...
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