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Q: Describe the important contributions made by Fredrick W. Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.

Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1915)

�Frederick Winslow Taylor, become known as "the father of scientific management." He insisted that management itself would have to change and, further, Taylor suggested that decisions based on rules of thumb be replaced with precise procedures developed after careful study of individual situations.�The essence of Taylor's scientific management can be summarized in the following principles: • Develop a science for each element of a worker's job to replace rules of thumb. • Job specialization should be a part of each job.

• Ensure the proper selection, training, and development of workers. • Planning and scheduling of the work are essential.
• Standards with respect to methods and time for each task should be established. • Wage incentives should be an integral part of each job.

�These four principles became the basic guidelines for managing the work of individuals. Taylor's approach had a significant impact on American society; it led to increases in productivity. His ideas also stimulated others to continue the formulation of management thought.

Frank Gilbreth (1868- 1924), Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972)

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were a husband-wife team if industrial engineers. They produced significant contributions in motion study and work simplification. �With the use of motion picture cameras, the Gilbreth's found the most efficient and economical motions for each task, thus reducing and upgrading production. Working individually and together, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth developed numerous techniques and strategies for eliminating inefficiency.

(b)Explain how today’s managers use Scientific Management School of Thought?

Awareness and understanding of important historical developments are also important to contemporary managers. The history of management theories, helps managers by...
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