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Psychosocial Factors:
Stress and Health Management

Goal of Every Industry….

Increased
Productivity

Factors….You wish you could Control
I’m
Stress

Increased
Productivity

Other Factors

Stress
• “An individual’s adaptive response
to changes in the environment that
place demands on the individual.”
– People adapt in many different ways
• Functional
• Dysfunctional

– The stimuli that induce stress are
called stressors
– Stress
may
be
physical
or
psychological

TYPES OF STRESS

• Negative stress
• Positive stress

To be or not to be…..

NEGATIVE STRESS
“Distress”
Distress or negative stress occurs
when your level of stress is either
too high or too low and your body
and/or mind begin to respond
negatively to the stressors.

POSITIVE STRESS
“EuStress”
Eustress or positive stress occurs
when your level of stress is high
enough to motivate you to move
into action to get things
accomplished.

Positive versus Negative Stress
• Positive stress
– Feelings of excitement &
anticipation
– Creativity is heightened
– Coping skills learned and
adapted quickly
– Ability to process
information rapidly
increases
– Perception narrows,
concentration increases
– Heightened physical
stamina
– Bonding increases

• Negative Stress
– Feelings of anxiety and
uncertainty
– Creativity is stunted
– Coping skills are
overwhelmed
– Ability to process
information is stunted
– Perception narrows
– Easily distracted by
surrounding stimuli
– Somatic symptoms
– Conflict and blaming occur

Typical Relationship Between
Performance and Stress
Too Little Stress Optimum Stress Excessive Stress

Level of
Performance

High
(excellent)

Low
(poor)

Low

Amount of Stress

High

8

The Stressors

• Stress is not caused by any external factor. It is
created by oneself by the way one perceives about the
external factors.
• The situations in which most of the people tend to get
stressed are called stressors.
• Stressor is an agent, condition, or other stimulus that
causes stress to an organism.

Causes of Stress
Consequences

Causes
Life Stressors

Life Changes

Burnout

Life Trauma
Individual Consequences
Task Demands:

Behavioral

Occupation

Psychological

Security
Overload
Physical Demands:
Temperature

Experience
Stress

Medical
Organizational
Consequences

Office Design

Organizational
Stressors

Role Demands:

Decline in performance

Conflict

Turnover & absenteeism

Ambiguity

Decreased motivation &

Overload
Interpersonal Demands:
Group Pressures
Leadership Style
Personalities

satisfaction

Work/Organizational Stress….
• It is the response people
may have when presented
with work demands and
pressures that are not
matched to their knowledge
and abilities and which
challenge their ability to
cope.
• Little or no support from
employers and colleagues
makes the situation worse.

Confusion……
• There is often confusion between work pressure or challenge and stress and sometimes it is used to excuse bad management practice. • Pressure at workplace is unavoidable due to demands of the contemporary work environment.

• Pressure perceived as acceptable by an individual, may even keep workers alert, motivated, able to work and learn, depending on the available resources and personal characteristics.
• When the pressure becomes excessive or otherwise unimaginable it leads to stress.
• Stress can damage your workers’ health and your business performance.

Healthy Job ???
• According to WHO (1986), health is not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity but a positive state of
complete physical, mental and social well-being.
• A healthy job is one where the pressure on employees are appropriate in relation to their abilities and resources, to the amount of control they have over their work and the
support they receive from people who matter.

Healthy Working...
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