India’s revolution was most successful. India met their goals more than the other revolutions in China, Russia, and Ireland. Through the revolution, India fought with Britain in a nonviolent way with the guidance of Gandhi, and still ended up accomplishing all of their goals to become an individual country. Britain had complete control over India, and India was sick of it. Britain and India had made a compromise; if India gave up their men to fight for Britain’s army in World War I, in return for their service the British government promised reforms that would eventually get India to have self-government. During the war, India pushed the British more and more and their demands led to the declaration in Parliament favoring the “increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration, and the gradual development of self governing institutions” (1). To India, they thought that this was high progress and would eventually lead to self rule. But they knew it was too good to be true. In 1918, the Indian troops returned back home from war. India was excited that they have returned, for now they expected Britain to go through with their promise of granting India self-rule. When the British didn’t grant their promise, the angry nationalists showed acts of violence to show their hatred for the British rule. To curb dissent, the British passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919. This act stated that the government could take jail protesters without trial for as long as two years (2). This angered the people of India greatly and even more so than before, that as a way to protest they gathered ten thousand Hindus and Muslims and flocked over to Amritsar, the capital of Punjab in 1919. Not knowing the British had banned public meetings, the Indians prayed and listened to public speeches. The British commander General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to attack the Muslims and Hindus without any warning. The shooting went on for ten minutes, killing over four hundred Indians and injuring over one thousand. This was known as the Amritsar Massacre, and was the final straw for the Indians. The Indians craved independence, and were ready to fight for it. India’s revolution was most successful because they met their goals through civil disobedience, had the guidance of Mohandas Gandhi to break Britain’s economy, and fought in a non-violent ways to finally get self rule.
A LEADER STEPS UP
The Amritsar Massacre gave a chance for a man to step up to the plate and lead India into this revolution. Mohandas K. Gandhi was a universal man, who could relate to everyone in some way whether that be religion or political views. The Indians looked up to him for his strong attitude resisting the British, because he stood up for his rights, as well as others. When the British failed to punish the officers who killed and injured Indians in the Amritsar Massacre, Gandhi took it as a challenge. Gandhi urged the people of India to follow passive resistance, otherwise known as civil disobedience (3). This is when the people refused to follow any rules brought on by the British. This included refusing to buy British goods, pay British taxes, and vote in elections. Gandhi also had Indians weave their own cloth, and this successfully boycotted the British out of one of their sources of wealth. The British economy began to fall, and this angered the British. Throughout the 1920s, the British arrested thousands of Indians who had participated in Gandhi’s requests. Gandhi’s secret weapon of civil disobedience was finally paying off. Britain’s jails started overflowing, they struggled to keep trains running, and also took a toll on factories operating. Britains economy just keep getting worse, and declined from there.
A MARCH TO REMEMBER
In 1930, Gandhi came up with the idea to defy the hated Salt Acts. These British laws stated that India could only buy salt that was sold from the government and had to pay sales taxes on...