Substation

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  • Topic: Diode, Capacitor, Transformer
  • Pages : 35 (9545 words )
  • Download(s) : 78
  • Published : April 6, 2013
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SI.NO Chapter Names Page No 1. Introduction3
2.1 Substation3
2.2 History 4
2.3 Duties 5
2.4 Linemen safety 7
2. Block diagram 9
3.5 Description of block diagram10
3.6 Circuit description11

3. Hardware requirement specification 4.7 Designing of PCB12 4.8 Power supply unit13

4.9 Microcontroller16

4. Circuit diagrams
5.10 Buffer, Driver switching stage18 5.11 Buffer20 5.12 Driver21 5.13 Full wave regulated power supply +5v and +12v22

5. Electronic components used
6.14 Resistors25
6.15 Capacitors27
6.16 Diodes30
6.17 Zener diodes33
6.18 Light emitting diodes34
6.19 Relays37
6.20 Transistors40
6.21 Switches42
6.22 Connectors and cables43
7. Advantages46
8. Applications47
9. Conclusion48
10. Reference 49

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

As we have seen many types of remote controls like Infra-red controlled, RF controlled, DTMF controlled etc. The present model is also intended to control devices using GSM technology i.e. just by sending code (containing numerical numbers) to the appliance/devices status. So the present project model can be used in the substations, homes, industries etc. In substations feeders are located which carry the power close to the load points (localities, industrial areas, villages etc). At these points a transformer connected to it further step-downs the voltage to provide connection to the individual customer for 415v or at 215v.Thus the occurrence of the fault may be in the transformer or between the feeders. So the main aim of the project is to provide safety for the linemen. So the feeders can be made ON and OFF automatically by the linemen using security code. Therefore this system will be helpful to achieve long range operations, only thing is that cell network should present in the region wherever you connect the system to the device. So it will play an important role to control the device at the remote place.

1.1 SUBSTATION
An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer, and may be changed in voltage in several steps. A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing the current, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution.

The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. The first substations were connected to only one power station where the generator was housed, and were subsidiaries of that power station. FAULT ON FEEDER LINE:

A lineman (American English) or linesman (English) (also occasionally called a lineworker or a powerline technician(PLT) is a tradesman who constructs and maintains electric power transmission and distribution facilities. The term is also used for those who install and maintain telephone, telegraph, cable TV and more recently fibre optic lines. 1.2 History

This new electrical power work proved to be much more hazardous than telegraph or telephone work because of the...
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