2) BASIC ISSUES AND MODELS
A . Alcohol Involvement over the Life Span: A Developmental Perspective on Etiology and Course. B . Neuropsychological Effects of Substance Abuse.
C . The Disease Model of Addiction.
D . Alternative Theories of Substance Abuse Implications for Understanding Substance Abuse and Dependence in College Students.
3) POLICIES, PROGRAMMING, AND PREVENTION
A . Policy Development: An Essential Element in Addressing Campus Substance Abuse Issues. B . From Reactive to Proactive Prevention: Promoting Ecology of Health on Campus. C . Prohibition and Freshman Residence Halls: A Study of the Enforcement of University Alcohol Policy.
4) ASSESSMENT INTERVENTION, AND TREATMENT
A) . Assessing Alcohol Problems in Student Populations.
B) . Intervening with Substance Abusing College Students.
C) . Treatment of Substance Abuse Problems.
D) . The Role of Self-Help Groups in College Students' Recovery from Substance Abuse and Related Problems.
The abuse of alcohol and other drugs remains the number one public health problem for colleges and universities across the United States. Alcohol misuse poses a serious threat to the intellectual, psychological and physical development of traditional-age undergraduate college students. College students who engage in alcohol and other drug use have been shown to experience significantly higher rates of motor vehicle fatalities, unsafe sex, and emergency care visits, sexual assaults and poor academic performance.
BASIC ISSUES AND MODELS
The developmental perspective is concerned with understanding the growth, maturation, and decline of the individual organism, from conception, through birth, and through all stages of the life cycle. Alcohol is a substance that is used for pleasure, celebration, relief, and even sometimes for escape. A truly developmental approach to understanding these patterns of use would require us to make inferences about the discovery and early consumption of this ubiquitous substance, far back in prehistoric time. Somewhere in that prehistory, humankind decided to put energy into figuring out how to manufacture ethanol, and we have been doing so ever since. Out of consideration of space, however, this researcher will skip what we know of earlier epochs and move instead too more recent history, first to the seventeenth century, then to the nineteenth and
twentieth, paying particular attention to the disease theory of alcoholism. The evidence for a substantial degree of instability/epiphenomenality of alcohol problems over the life course is now significant. Heavily based upon population rather than clinical samples, it
ranges from studies of youth to studies of adults. In the area of substance abuse behavior
neurophysiologists are interested in the antecedents of abuse (why do they drink so
much?), the patterns of abuse (how much do they consume over how much time?), the
cognitive consequences of abuse (what cognitive components have been affected?), the
emotional consequences of abuse (are they developing psychological problems related to
abuse?), the permanency of behavioral consequences (is the memory permanently
damaged?), and intervention strategies for both the abusive behavior and the potential
consequences (how can we change their behavior and work around the deficits created by
their abuse?). The view that alcoholism and other addictions are disease states is
pervasive in the United States today. Though many people are ambivalent about the
concept, upward of 90 percent of Americans agree that alcoholism is an illness ( Caetano,
1987). The disease (or...