Substance Abuse

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WHAT IS MEANT BY DRUG DEPENDENCY?
Drug dependence is a situation where an addict feels he/she must have drugs in order to live; this is the term to describe psychological dependence. Physical dependence occurs when the body metabolism adapts to the presence of the drugs, when the drug is removed strong withdrawal symptoms are produced. This withdrawal syndrome is experienced as sickness, stomach upset and muscular pain. Hallucinations and convulsions may also occur.

EXPLAIN WHY ALCOHOL IS A DRUG
Alcohol is a drug because it affects the body tissues and as a result influences behaviour. BRIEFLY OUTLINE THREE REASONS WHY PEOPLE BECOME DEPENDENT ON DRUGS People become dependent on drugs because of curiosity, believing drugs will improve mental processes. Fashionable. Thinking they are not addictive and following friends and in an attempt to escape from reality. LIST FIVE WAYS IN WHICH EXCESSIVE ALCOHOL DRINKING MAY DAMAGE HEALTH Heavy drinking may enlarge the liver and passage of blood through it is slowed down. This increases the blood pressure putting extra stress on the heart muscle, which may also be damaged directly by the alcohol. * Cirrhosis of the liver The liver swells with fatty tissue, cells are destroyed and connective tissue is deposited. * Vitamin B1 is frequently deficient in alcoholics.

* Bleeding from the stomach lining may occur.
* Alcoholics frequently experience memory loss. The rate of reaction time is slowed down as the brain and nerve impulse transmission is affected. * Kidney increases excretion of water.
* Speech becomes slurred.
HOW CAN YOU TELL IF SOMEONE IS AN ALCOHOLIC?
You may be able to tell if someone is an alcoholic by observing violent behaviour, criminal activities performed by individuals, car accidents, depression, illness, unhappy family life, poor work habits and absenteeism from work. Surveys have shown that deaths from bronchitis and emphysema are twenty times more common among middle-aged men who smoke heavily, than among non-smokers. * Coronary heart disease is three times more likely among smokers than non-smokers. * Heavy cigarette smokers are thirty times more likely to die from lung cancer than non-smokers. Only ten per cent of all deaths from lung cancer occur in non-smokers. * All types of smoking are responsible for the increase in cancers of the mouth, including the lips, tongue, pharynx and larynx.

* Smoking also harms the digestion, because nicotine decreases the production of gastric juices. * Many non-smokers find tobacco smoke unpleasant.
* Lighted cigarette ends thrown away carelessly commonly cause fires. * Women who smoke have more abortion, stillbirths and premature births, than non-smoking mothers do. Babies born to mothers who smoke are smaller in size. Nicotine may cross the placental barrier to harm the foetus. P. Gadd Human and Sociology, pg. 214

EXPLAIN THREE WAYS IN WHICH THE SPREAD OF VENEREAL DISEASE COULD BE CONTROLLED * Attend special clinics set up to provide treatment at the first suggestion of any infection, treatment may be more effective if detected at an early stage. * Trace all the sexual contacts and inform them of the likelihood of infection. This will help to minimise the spread of the infection. * Early treatment as we have seen is essential both to prevent serious damage to the patient and to reduce the chances of spreading the disease. * Infections in most cases is caused by close body contact through sexual relations, control is in the hands of each individual adult. * Do not have sexual relationships with an infected person. Avoid all contact with blood from other people. This is why experiments with human blood is no longer allowed in school courses ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME

Signs and symptoms
Weakened body resistance/immunity, hence death from other diseases e.g. Pneumonia. Lack of white blood cells. Method of spread
Homosexual and heterosexual intercourse. Drug addicts, infected needles. Blood...
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