Sublimation Mechanism of Psychoanalytical Counselling Theory as a Tool for Addressing Juvenile Delinquency in Secondary Schools in Nigeria

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SUBLIMATION MECHANISM OF PSYCHOANALYTICAL COUNSELLING THEORY AS A TOOL FOR ADDRESSING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA

A PAPER PRESENTED BY
PROF. FATI SHUAIBU
AND
NTAMU BLESSING AGBO

ON THE FIRST NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION NASARAWA STATE UNIVERSITY KEFFI HELD IN 1000 AUDITORIUM SEAT 12TH - 14TH JUNE, 2012.

ABSTRACT
The present methods being utilized by teachers, counselors and administrators in dealing with cases of indiscipline and juvenile delinquency in our secondary schools have not been sufficient or effective for handling all delinquent behaviours in our schools, hence the high prevalence of indiscipline and delinquency issues. This paper is not geared towards setting hard and fast rules on how to apply the mechanism of sublimation in dealing with juvenile delinquency, but at drawing the attention of the school counselor to the relevance of the principle of Sublimation in dealing with juvenile delinquency, and to stimulate the counsellor’s creativity in designing programmes that will serve as alternative outlets for available sexual and aggressive energies in adolescence to prevent them from channeling this sexual and aggressive energies directly into delinquent behaviours like rape, sexual harassment, vandalization of property, fighting, armed robbery, terrorism etc. The paper is therefore tailored to address the following: * Who is a juvenile delinquent?

* What are the present methods used by counselors in tackling juvenile Delinquency and what is lacking in these methods? * What is Sublimation mechanism of Psychoanalytical Counseling Theory? Recommendations are given at the end of this paper.

INTRODUCTION
Sublimation is one of the defence mechanisms defined in Freud’s psychoanalytical theory of counseling as one of the ways in which the ego deals with anxiety causing situations in the individual. This mechanism could be a very useful tool in preventing and handling juvenile delinquency issues in secondary schools in Nigeria. The value of sublimation has been recognized a long while ago and forms the basis of the Psychoanalytical theory of career choice; in which career choice is regarded as a direct consequence of sublimation whereby people’s personality traits and impulses lead them to choose careers that will satisfy their basic impulses. What in the first instance is sublimation? The Oxford Dictionary of Psychology (Colman, 2003) defined sublimation in Psychoanalysis as a defence mechanism by which a repressed or unconscious drive that is denied gratification is diverted into a more acceptable channel or form of expression, as when aggression is diverted into playing or watching violent sports, or when libido is directed into artistic or creative activity. Negative psychic energies (sexual and aggressive energies, libido) which according to Freud is available to human beings; embedded in the id, which could have been expressed directly in form of delinquent sexual and aggressive behaviours by juveniles can be diverted into commendable and rewarding cultural, social and artistic pursuits. These sexual and aggressive energies are a part of the death instinct in humans referred to by Freud as ‘thanatos’. In classical psychoanalysis human personality has two basic urges: * The urge to live or life instinct called EROS

* The urge to die or death instinct called THANATOS
Gross (2010) in his explanation of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of aggression said that Thanatos represents an inborn destructiveness directed primarily against the self with the aim of reducing tension and aggression to the barest minimum; in an attempt to reinvent the ideal state that was enjoyed in the womb, and the only way of going back to the ideal, is through death. Self directed aggression however, conflicts with the life instincts, eros; but because of the strength of the destructive impulse it cannot be suppressed but is being displaced towards others in the form of...
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