Exercise 5( page 47)
English has a suffix –en whose uses is illustrated in the following lists:
List A: red blackmad soft hard sweet …
List B: redden blackenmadden soften hardensweeten …
A. The part of speech of the words in list A belongs to adjective category. The suffix “en” is attached to the words in list A. The other morphemes can be attached to the words in list A such as “er”, “est”, “ish”
B and C.
The words in list B are all the verbs
E.g. sharp – sharpen
The derived verb form “sharpen” means “to make sharp something”.
The suffix “en” introduces a new element of meaning, roughly means “make something X” where X is the meaning of the adjective.
Exercise 6( page 48)
English also has a prefix un-, whose use is illustrated in the following lists:
List A: truelikelyacceptable wise real …
List B: untrueunlikelyunacceptable unwise unreal …
A. The words that prefix un- attaches to belong to the adjective category.
B. When un- is prefixed to a word, the resultant new words also belong to the adjective category but with the opposite meaning.
C. The prefix “un-“ known as derivational affix introduces a new element of meaning, roughly means “ the opposite of X” or “not X”, where X is the meaning of the adjective.
⇨ Only one change is associated with this prefix, that is a semantic change (meaning change).
D. The morpheme “un-“usually only attaches to the adjectives or the verbs. However, there are some exceptions like “uncola” or “uncar”, due to the fact that “cola” and “car” are nouns. In reality, some advertisers deliberately created these words to attract the consumers on purpose. They can create these words because the morpheme “un-“ is a very productive morpheme and even in normal speech attaches to words that not adjectives or verbs.
Exercise 7( page 49)
Consider a new set of data:
List A: tie wrap cover wind dress …
List A: untie unwrap uncover unwind undress…
A. It can be seen clearly that the prefix “un” illustrated here differ from the prefix “un-“ illustrated in the previous exercise due to the fact that the words that “un-“ is prefixed to here belongs to the verb categories. B. The resultant new words also belong to the verb categories.
C. It is the fact that the prefix “un-“ known as derivational affix introduces a new element of meaning, roughly means “ the reverse action of X” or “not X”, where X is the meaning of the action X. Therefore, it seems that only one semantic change occurs in this case.
D. when the prefix ”un” in exercise 7 is added to the verb, it means that reserve or undo the result of a specified action. In another way, the prefix un- is added to the adjective in exercise 6 , it means that giving an opposite or negative force.
Exercise 8 (page 49)
Based on the evidence in exercise 6&7 , we note that English has two prefixes un- with two different meanings.
Take the word” unlockable” as an example
- Firstly, when the prefix ”un” is added to the verb, it means that reserve or undo the result of a specified action. According to this rule, lock (khóa)( unlock( mở)
- However, on the other side, when the prefix un- is added to the adjective, it means that giving an opposite or negative force. Hence, in this situation “lockable” (can lock with a key )( unlockable ( can’t lock with a key) brings the negative meaning.
Exercise 9(page 49)
List A: redorewriteresetrebuild….
List B: regorecryresleepredie….
A. It is said that phonological changes involves in the change of sound. But when attaching a pre re- in the word or a stem, there is no change of sound . It also means no change in phonological information.
B. In this situation, the prefix re- attaches to the verbs.
It can be seen that...