There are three different types of subatomic particles. The nucleus of an atom is composed of two different types of particles, protons and neutrons. Protons are positively charged atoms. The weight of a proton is one amu. Protons are located inside the nucleus and cannot move from inside the nucleus. The proton symbol is . Neutrons are also located inside the nucleus and have a neutral charge. Neutrons are also one amu like protons. Neutrons can move from the nucleus of an atom making an atom an isotope. The neutron symbol is . Electrons are located outside the nucleus in energy levels. Electrons have a negative charge and weigh approximately 1/2000th of an amu. The weight is almost insignificant. Electrons can vary in an atom making cations and anions. Cations are a positive charge when an atom loses an electron. Anions are a negative charge when an atom gains an electron. These are the three subatomic particles that make up an atom and their characteristics.
Essay- Buffer System
Buffers resist pH fluctuations. A buffer is composed of a weak acid and a weak base. Carbonic acid is the weak acid and bicarbonate is the weak base. When a solution is to acidic the pH is low and there are to many hydrogen ions. The low pH level is caused by to many hydrogen ions. To make a solution neutral you would need to make more acid my combining bicarbonate and hydrogen ions to form carbonic acid. By doing this you are reducing the number of hydrogen ions in a solution. When a solution is to basic the pH is high and the number of hydrogen ions is low. The pH is high because the solution has a low number of hydrogen ions. To make a solution neutral in a basic solution you need to break down carbonic acid increasing the number of hydrogen ions.