Stylistic: Literature and Emotive Prose

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1. Style in general. The object of linguostylistics. The cat. of variation. Stylistics, sometimes called lingvo-stylistics, is a branch of general linguistics. It deals mainly with two interdependent tasks:

a) the investigation of the inventory of special language media which by their ontological features secure the desirable effect of the utterance and b) certain types of texts (discourse) which due to the choice and arrangement of language means are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of the communication. The two objectives of stylistics are clearly discernible as two separate fields of investigation. The terms "style" originated from the Latin stylos, which meant "a stick for writing on wax tablets". Later stylos came to denote metonymically also a manner of writing and speaking, in other words, the manner of using language. The subject of stylistics has not so far been definitely outlined. This is due to a number of reasons. First of all, there is confusion between the terms "style" and "stylistics". The first concept is so broad that it is hardly possible to regard it as a term. We speak of style in architecture, literature, behaviour, linguistics, dress and other fields of human activity.

Even in linguistics the word "style" is used so widely that it needs interpretation.The majority of linguists who deal with the subject of style agree that the term applies to the following fields of investigation: · the interrelation between language and thought;

· the aesthetic function of language;
· expressive means in language;
· emotional colouring of language;
· a system of special devices called stylistic devices;
· the splitting of the literary language into separate subsystems (genres, registers, etc.);
· synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea;
· the individual manner of an author in making use of language. The treatment of the selected elements brings up the problem of the norm. The notion of the norm mainly refers to the literary language and always presupposes a recognized or received s t a n d a r d. The norm, therefore, should be regarded as the invariant of the phonemic, morphological, lexical and syntactical patterns circulating in language-in-action at a given period of time. Variants of these patterns may sometimes diverge from the invariant but they never exceed the limits set by the invariant lest it should become unrecognizable or misleading. The development of any literary language shows that the variants will always center around the axis of the invariant forms. The variants, as the term itself suggests, will* never detach themselves from the invariant to such a degree as to claim entire independence. Yet, nevertheless, there is a tendency to estimate the value of individual style by the degree it violates the norms of the language. The problem of variants of the norm, or deviations from the norm of the literary language, has received widespread attention among linguists and is central to some of the major current controversies. It is the inadequacy of the concept 'norm' that causes the controversy. At every period in the development of a literary language there must be a tangible norm which first of all marks the difference between literary and non-literary language. Then there must be a clear-cut distinction between the invariant of the norm (as an abstraction) and its variants (in concrete texts).

2. Functional S. Definition/ different approaches to classification. . A functional style of language is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. A functional style is thus to be regarded as the product of a certain concrete task set by the sender of the message. Functional styles appear mainly in the literary standard of a language. Functional Styles of the English Language

Functional stylistics, which has become and remains an international, very important trend in style study, deals with sets, "paradigms" of language units of...
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