Studying Gender Effect on Entrepreneurial Intentions among Business Graduates
In this study we use the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to detect gender effects in the variables that shape entrepreneurial intentions among business graduates. We conclude that the gender effect on intentions is interceded via personal attitudes toward entrepreneurship and more so via perceived control over becoming an entrepreneur. These mediation effects at factorial level can be explained by moderation effects at indicator level. Where male graduate students are driven by the more dominant action-oriented entrepreneurial values, female students are more driven by the less dominant balance-oriented entrepreneurial values. Where male students are driven by both internal and external feelings of control, female students are driven by the more dominant internal feelings of control. This study adds to the research that studies entrepreneurial intentions and clarifies how different entrepreneurial definitions for men and women may drive entrepreneurial behavior.
The role of entrepreneurs on economy changes by seeing to its stage of economic development. The study and practice of raising entrepreneurial intentions has been the subject of much Debate in recent years. The main focus in this study is to see the ratio of entrepreneurial activity on the basic two genders male and female. This study is done to see increasing gender differences in entrepreneurial activity. Such a study of gender differences in entrepreneurship is a recent but not new venture. . In this study we try to cover the loose ends of Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) to develop an instrument that explores gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is a framework that models the different variables that impact the intention to engage in a particular behavior: personal attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioral control. Previous research showed conflicting results with respect to the importance of the factors subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. The objective of this study is to overcome both measurement and analytical shortcomings of previous TPB entrepreneurial studies by focusing on exploring the gender effects that form entrepreneurial intentions. The developed countries are all innovation-driven economies and the developing countries in the present study are all efficiency-driven economies. In efficiency-driven Economies, institutions support industrialization in search of higher productivity and economies of scale. . As the economy develops further, the emphasis on industrial activity gradually shifts towards expanding the service sector, which develops and becomes more stylish. This change is mostly associated with increasing passion in research and development as well as knowledge, and it leads to the materialization of innovative, opportunity looking for entrepreneurial activities.
International studies such as the “Global Entrepreneurship Monitor2007 (GEM)” and “The International Survey on Collegiate Entrepreneurship 2006 (ISCE)” clearly display nationwide differences in indicators of entrepreneurial activity and aim respectively. Given the socio-economic benefits generally attributed to entrepreneurship(Carree & Thurik, 2006),for the study of different factors like academic, educational and governmental institutions to see their impact on entrepreneurial intentions. We try to work to greater area .. Results from the GEM 2007 study shows that woman are less average score towards the entrepreneurial activity (TEA) index as compared to men and that even though this difference has decreased. So a gender-gap still remains (Allen, Elam, Langowitz & Dean, 2007). These authors found that the gender-gap in TEA is more in the areas having high income where men are almost twice as likely to be early stage or established business owners (GEM, 2007). As an...
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