Studyguide Semester 1

Topics: Thirteen Colonies, United States, Slavery in the United States Pages: 12 (3225 words) Published: April 17, 2013

Colonial History
Earliest Colonies
Virginia - May 1607, 100 English settlers founded Jamestown. Problems included: Swampy area of Jamestown meant poor drinking water and mosquitos spreading malaria and yellow fever. Men spent time looking for gold instead of establishing themselves (building shelter or planting crops). No women on the first ship

the Virginia company received a charter from King James I. It was a joint stock company, meaning customers invest in a company, turn a profit, then sell their shares. Jamestown finds tobacco-creating a greed for the land.

1619 - House of Burgesses- representative self-government to work out local issues. Maryland - 1634 by Lord Baltimore as a Catholic haven. Many Catholic got huge estates, but the poorer people who settled there were Protestants, creating friction. Had a lot of indentured servants, black slavery didn’t become popular until the later 1600s. Act of Toleration - granted toleration to Catholic faith, but decreed the death penalty to anyone who didn’t believe Jesus is the Savior (Jews, atheists, etc). South Carolina - 1670, ties to West Indies. Brought in strict “Barbados Slave Codes”, which gave no punishment to anyone who killed a slave. Restoration colony - founded after restoration of the monarchy. Planters and aristocrats (wealthy) around Charleston, with rice and indigo. Began to import slaves.

North Carolina - Squatters from Virginia who didn’t own any land. Developed a resistance to authority because of geographical isolation. Strong-willed people on small tobacco farms.
1712, officially separated from South Carolina.
Georgia - 1733, by James Oglethorpe. Used as a buffer colony between Spanish and British. Many debtors were sent to Georgia. SOUTHERN COLONIES: VMSNG
Slavery was founded in all the colonies. Plantations were spread out, making it hard to establish schools and Churches. All colonies had religious toleration. Main crops: Tobacco & Rice, some indigo.

Massachusetts Bay - 1630, by Puritans, lead by John Winthrop. Only men of the Puritan (congregational) Church could participate in government. However, religious leaders had immense influence. Heavy fines for “earthly pleasures”. Purpose of government is to enforce laws.

Connecticut - 1635, Puritans led by Rev. Thomas Hooker.
1639 - Fundamental Orders - limited gov, the governed have rights (basic Constitution). Rhode Island - combination of the unwanted people, established in 1635, but didn’t have an official charter until 1644. “God’s Sewer”.

New Hampshire - Absorbed by Massachusetts in 1641, but declared a separate colony in 1679. Fishing center
Major religion was Puritan, which influenced everyday life and laws New York - 1664, British troops defeated the Dutch. New Amsterdam to New York. Pennsylvania - 1681, William Penn. Peaceful, tolerant (except for Jews and Catholics), representative gov. Quakers disliked slavery, and treated the Indians well.

Very prosperous.
New Jersey & Delaware - Small colonies, founded with Quaker influence. MIDDLE COLONIES: NPND
fertile soil
rivers allowed transportation and settlements
fewer industries then the North, but more then South
ethnically diverse, democratic control, and toleration

Mercantilism/Navigation Acts
-Mercantilism - colonies should add to the wealth, prosperity, and self-sufficiency of the mother country. America should help: ensuring naval supremacy by making ships, sailors, and trade providing a market for British manufacturers

keeping money in empire by growing and supplying products that would otherwise have to be purchased from other countries. -Merits: not enforced until 1763. Colonial traders had the protection of the British empire at no cost. Average colonist lived a better life then Briton. Preferred over British sources. -Demerits: Colonial economy was stifled by the limits and restrictions. South was favored over North. Prices were up to...
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