Unit1 Learning and intelligence
• Listening for gist
Sometimes a listener may just want to get a general idea of what the speaker is saying, not detailed information. Listening for the general idea is also called listening for gist. • Listening for specific information
Sometimes we listen for specific information, for example:
1. Times,dates,facts and figures.
2. main points in a list.
3. an argument/a line of reasoning.
Important information is often signaled by the choice of words, for examples: 1. one of the most important skills is …
2. another piece of advice is …
3. I’d like to point out that…
4. it’s important to remember that…
Speakers sometimes speak more slowly and clearly to show that some points are important.
• Critical thinking (1)Defining terms
One part of critical thinking is being clear about the exact meaning of the words we use. We need to define the terms we use clearly, so for example, if we are discussing intelligence, we must first decide 1. what is intelligence?
2. what do we mean by an intelligent person?
Different people have different ideas of what words such as intelligence or intelligent mean. • Understanding the language of graphs
Make sure you are familiar with the basic language for graphs. Some of the key terms are: vertical axis, horizontal axis, curve, distribution, peak, range It’s especially important to understand:
1. what are the graph is meant to show, e.g. the title and dates. 2. what the vertical axis measures.
3. what the horizontal axis measures.
• Assessing yourself
Before starting a new course of study, it is useful to understand what kind of student you are. 1. what are you good at (strength) and what are you bad at (weaknesses)? 2. how can you improve these weak areas?
Think about your study habits.
1. when do you like to study and where?
2. how can you make your study habits more effective?
• Taking turns in a discussion
In a discussion, it is important to make your turn, and also let others take their turns. You should practice how to: 1. ‘take the floor’ or interrupt another speaker.
2. ‘hold the floor’ and stop another person interrupting. 3. ‘hand over’ to other speaker.
Language for discussions:
1. taking the floor/ interrupting
Could I just make a point…?
I’d like to add something here…
I agree with… but I’d just like to say…
Could I say something here…?
2. holding the floor
Could you hold on…?
Could I just finish…?
Well, let me explain…
Sorry, but I’d just like to finish by saying…
3. handing over to other speakers
What does everyone else think?
Does everyone agree?
What do you think?
Would you like to comment?
• Knowing a word
To know a word fully, we should know:
1. the meaning
2. the part of speech
3. the spelling
4. its synonyms and antonyms
5. the word occur with it(collocations)
6. forms of the word
7. its pronunciation
Unit2 Health and fitness
• Critical thinking(2) Evaluating evidence
It is important to evaluate claims. In order to do this you must find and evaluate evidence which can support or refute the claim. Ask questions, for example: 1. what proof us there?
2. have tests or surveys been carried out?
3. how were the tests carried out?
4. what were the results?
• Identifying speakers’ opinions
When listening to a group discussion, train yourself to:
1. identify each of the speakers as they enter into the discussion. 2. recognize the speakers by tone of voice or by name throughout the discussion. 3. recognize languages that signals opinions or beliefs that the speakers may hold, e.g. In my view…/ It seems to me… 4. understand phrases that help identify speakers’ attitudes during the discussion, for example: Assertive
That’s completely wrong!
It is quite clear that…
I understand what you are saying, but…
That’s true, although…
Why are you asking me that?
No, I didn’t say that.
• Key vocabulary for...