Study on Immediate Newborn Care

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6.1 INTRODUCTION

Save the Children
The birth of a baby is one of life’s most wondrous moments. Newborn babies have amazing abilities, yet they are completely depended on others for breast -feeding, warmth and comfort .Newborn is a continuum of the fetal life and a very important and vulnerable link in the chain of events from the conception to adulthood. The physical and mental wellbeing of an individual depends on the correct management of events in the perinatal period. The current neonatal mortality rate in India is of 45 per 1000 live births compared to 36 per 1000 live birth of global scenario, which accounts for nearly two thirds of infant’s mortality and half of under five mortality. Over one third of all neonatal death occurs in fast day of life, almost half within 3days and nearly fourth is the first week. The four basic needs of ALL babies at the time of birth (and for the first few week of life) are: A) Warmth

B) Normal breathing

C) Mother’s milk

D) Protection from infection

These basic needs indicate that a baby’s survival is totally dependent upon her mother and other care givers. Therefore it is important to provide proper care to all the neonates immediately after birth. All newborns require essential newborn care to minimize the risk of illness and maximize their growth and development. This care will also prevent many newborn emergencies. For example, the umbilical cord may be the most common source of neonatal sepsis and also of tetanus infection, and good cord care can dramatically reduce the risk s of these serious conditions. Exclusive breast feeding has a significant protective effect against infections. Early breast feeding and keeping the baby close to the mother reduce the risk of hypothermia and hypoglycemia.6

All the babies require basic care to help their survival and well-being. These proven, low-cost measures include immediate care at birth as well as care during the first 28 days of life, when infants are most vulnerable. Hospital based observation were painful evidence of poor care, regarding cleanliness, eye care, and breast feeding initiation, thermal protection and infection prevention. Policy makers should think about strengthening of hospital care by involving strategies that include concerned quality training, equipment/drugs supply and monitoring the services provided3. The rate of neonatal mortality from 99% of all newborn deaths occurs in low and middle income countries, with two-thirds of those occurring in Asia and Africa. It is the poorest of the poor in these countries that bare the burnt of newborn mortality and it is their right to healthy newborn that is not being met. Given the disparity in neonatal outcomes between rich and the poor (both between counties and with in countries) improving newborn health should be part of any poverty reduction strategy. Most newborns die at home, in the absence of contact with a skilled health provider4.

6.2 NEED FOR THE STUDY
The first week of life is the most crucial period in the life of an infant. This is because the newborn has to adapt itself rapidly and successfully to an external environment. The risk of death is greatest during the first 24-48 hours after birth; Newborn mortalities are one of the most neglected health problems in the developing world, there are estimated 4 million neonatal deaths worldwide each year. Moreover it is estimated to account for 40% of under five deaths and two-third of infant deaths. The proportion generally higher in rural areas. According to world health report 2005, global neonatal mortalities rate is 36/1000, while in developing counties, the rate is 39/10006.

Nearly 26 million babies are born in India each year, this account for 20% of global birth, of these, 1.2 million die before completing the first four weeks of...
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