BACKGROUND RESEARCH / ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
I have chosen the country of England as my study in intercultural communication. My informant is Mr. David Hammond and his email address is: Hammond.David@Comcast.net. David is a classmate of mine in the SPSCC Computer-Aided Drafting Program. He grew up in Manchester, England. The United Kingdom (UK) is a group of islands located off the northwest coast of continental Europe. The official name of this group of countries is “The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.” It is made up of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland is located on the Irish island and is bordered by the Republic of Ireland. England is the largest of these countries with a population of 62.7 million. According to the 2001 census this population was divided as follows: White 92.1% (English 83.6%, Scottish 8.6%, Welsh 4.9%, Northern Irish 2.9%) Black 2%, Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2% and other 1.6%. England has a very high population density of 992 people/square miles in an area of 50,337 square miles. ("The world factbook," 2013) In contrast the state of Washington has 101.2 people/square miles in an area of 66,544 square miles. ("Washington quick facts," 2010) England is shaped like a triangle and has a long (5,581 miles) irregular coast line. England has a land area of 50,337 square miles. ("The world factbook", 2013) The topography of England is varied with some hilly regions in the northern end of the country, to the east are flat plains, lowlands and low hills to the south and moors (A moor is a broad area of open land, often high but poorly drained, with patches of heath and peat bogs). ("United kingdom topography,” 2013) The UK is located in the North Atlantic Ocean with latitude of 54˚ 00’ N and a longitude of 2˚ 00’ W. In contrast Washington State has a latitude of 38˚ 54’ N and a longitude of 77˚ 04’ 48” W so, the climate in England is about the same as Western Washington. (Annual rain fall 29” vs. 34” respectfully) ("Washington annual rainfall," 2013) ("Uk climate summaries," 2013) Because England is on an island surrounded by the North Sea on the eastern side and the English Channel on the southern side, it has always had a natural security from invasion. The last successful invasion was the Norman Conquest of 1066. This was very evident at the beginning of World War Two. On September 3, 1939, the British government under the leadership of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlin declared war on Germany. This happened for two reasons. First, Britain believed that Germany would not stop at Poland but, would continue to take over as much of Europe as they could. Second, 2 years earlier France and England had signed a mutual defense treaty with Poland. ("The british declaration," 2013) As a result, in September of 1940 the city of London was bombed for 57 consecutive nights by the German Luftwaffe. Over 1000 tons of bombs were dropped which resulted in more than 1 million houses being destroyed or damaged and more than 20,000 people killed in London. (Roberts, 2011) The bombing did not achieve its goals of forcing the British people to surrender or to stop producing war materials in their factories. Quite the opposite happened, during the eight months of the “Blitz“(German for lightning) British war production actually increased. (Cooper, 1981) England is located on an island surrounded by the English Channel on the south, the North Sea to east, the North Atlantic Ocean on the north, to the west is the Irish Sea and to the south west is the Celtic Sea. Across the English Channel is France (the “Chunnel Tunnel connects London and Paris by train). Ireland is a short distance across the Irish Sea. Great Britain is a part of the European community and is therefore influenced by the larger European culture. The most dominant geographic feature is the fact that England is a part of an island. Being an island can impact the English...
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