Study of Cold Environment

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Cold environments Case Study- Alaska
* State in the United States-international boundary with Canada to the east, arctic ocean to the north * Largest state in United States by area, however least densely populated Economy
* GDP in 2007: $64,333
* Per capita personal income : $40,042, rank :15th in nation * Oil and gas industry dominates the Alaskan economy
* More than 80% of states revenues derived from petroleum extraction * Main export : seafood , agriculture represent only fraction of economy * Largest employers:
* Providence health and services : 4000+ av. Monthly employment in 2010 * Walmart: 3000-3259 av .monthly employment 2010
* First oil claims in Alaska made in the 1890, noted oil sea pages on iniskin bay and cold bay- not pursued by Russians * 1898- first Alaskan wells drilled in Iniskin Peninsula * Alaska's first productive oil drilling operation was at Katalla, on the Gulf of Alaska, south of the Copper River delta * In 1911 several new wells in the district began to produce significant oil, costs not big enough to justify extraction * In 1960, following the statehood of Alaska and the creation of the state natural resources agencies, oil companies bought exploration leases for work in Cook Inlet * The boom in economic development and population growth after the discovery of oil was immediate and still continues Types of Development in Alaska

* Oil and Gas industry- major oil fields developed along central north slope * Oil production accounts for 93% of Alaska’s unrestricted general fund revenues. * Since statehood, Alaska has received $164 billion in revenues from oil * Development in the fishing industry- sea provides endless harvest worth billions of pounds. Over 3 million lakes, 3000 rivers and 34 000 miles coastline- bountiful fishing regions in the world * Salmon fishing industry- worth $11 billion a year

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