Chemistry Investigatory Project
Anand Vihar School
Topic: Study of Adulterants in Food Stuffs
Submitted By: Submitted To: Devanand Vyas Mrs. Surbhi Mam XII XII ‘A’
I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the writing of this book.
My deepest thanks to my Chemistry Teacher, Mrs. Surbhi Mam the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. She has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed.
I express my thanks to the Principal of Anand Vihar School, Mrs. Aruna Mam for extending her support.
I would also like to thank my classmates without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well-wishers.
3. Materials Required
The increasing number of food producers and the outstanding amount of import foodstuffs enables the producers to mislead and cheat consumers. To differentiate those who take advantage of legal rules from the ones who commit food adulteration is very difficult. The consciousness of consumers would be crucial. Ignorance and unfair market behavior may endanger consumer health and misleading can lead to poisoning. In the past few decades, adulteration of food has become one of the serious problems. Consumption of adulterated food causes serious diseases like cancer, diarrhea, asthma, ulcers, etc. Majority of fats, oils and butter are paraffin wax, castor oil and hydrocarbons. Red chilli powder is mixed with brick powder and pepper is mixed with dried papaya seeds. These adulterants can be easily identified by simple chemical tests. Several agencies .have been set up by the Government of India to remove adulterants from food stuffs. AGMARK – acronym for agricultural marketing….this organization certifies food products for their quality. Its objective is to promote the Grading and Standardization of agricultural and allied commodities. Aim
To study the presence of harmful Adulterants in various food stuffs. Adulteration in food is normally present in its most crude form; prohibited substances are either added or partly or wholly substituted. Normally the contamination/adulteration in food is done either for financial gain or due to carelessness and lack in proper hygienic condition of processing, storing, transportation and marketing. This ultimately results that the consumer is either cheated or often become victim of diseases. Such types of adulteration are quite common in developing countries or backward countries. It is equally important for the consumer to know the common adulterants and their effect on health.
To detect the presence of adulterants in fat, oil and butter.
Test-tube, acetic anhydride, conc. H2SO4, acetic acid, conc. HNO3.
Common adulterants present in ghee and oil are paraffin wax, hydrocarbons, dyes and argemone oil. These are detected as follows: (i) Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee- Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicates the presence of wax or hydrocarbons.
(ii) Adulteration of dyes in fat-
Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. sulphuric acid and 4mL of acetic acid. Appearance of pink or red colour indicates presence of dye in fat.
(iii) Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils-
To small amount of oil in a test-tube, add few drops of conc. HNO3 and shake. Appearance of red colour in the acid layer indicates presence of argemone oil.
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