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Ch. 18 Study Guide ---- 20 points DUE MONDAY, NOVEMBER 26th

Define the following key terms (pg. 617)
Natural philosophy
- Science during the scientific revolution

Copernican hypothesis
- Earth was grand size, no crystal sphere; stated earth was just another planer - Destroyed Aristotle physics

Experimental method
-Galileo; conducted control experiment to find what happened

Law of inertia
-Galileo; an object in motion stays in motion unless stopped by external force

Law of universal gravitation
-Newton; every body attracts another in a math relationship; force is proportional to quantity of matter & is inversely proportional to square distance between them.

Empiricism
-Francis Bacon; inductive reasoning: reasoning from detailed facts to general principles

Cartesian dualism
-Desacartes reasoning; deductive reasoning: mind and matter

Scientific community
- intelligent group linked by scientific interest & values

Enlightenment
-new world perspective in the 18th century
- began with the scientific revolution

Rationalism
- Secular/ Critical way of thinking

Progress
- main focus of continuing forward in the Scientific Revolution

Skepticism
- Questioning and doubting everything

Tabula rasa
- John Locke; human mind being a blank tablet at birth

Philosophes
- group of French intelligence who brought light of knowledge to ignorant people during the Enlightenment

Separation of powers
- political power divided by a variety of powers & legal estates holding unequal rights & privileges.

Reading revolution
- New style of enlightenment reading in france
- Individually/ Silent/ Quickly Reading

Salons
- Elegant drawing room where elites met to discuss & debate Enlightenment topic: France

Rococo
-style of pastels, love, sentimental portraits & ornament interiors

Public sphere
- Institution with philosophes discussions

General will
- Rousseau
- the interests in people

Racial difference
- formation of influential understandings from traveling

Enlightened absolutism
- evolt. Monarchal absolutist & Enlightenment affect of the late 18th cen.

Know the major discovery or discoveries for the following scientists: Galileo
- Italian
- Made experimental method & law of inertia
- “An object in motion stays in motion unless stopped by external force”

Brahe
- Danish
- All planets revolve around the sun
- Collected data; not good with math

Kepler
- German
- Proposed 3 laws of planetary motion

Aristotle
- Greek
- natural philosophy
- Christians and the Church liked him

Copernicus
- Heliocentric Universe; no spherse
- On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
- Catholic Church did not like him

Know the major ideas/works of the following philosophers:
Bacon
- English
- agreed with experimental method
- used inductive reasoning
- helped form empirical method

Kant
- Prussia
- On the Different Races of Man
- studied races; “ white brunettes” in N. Germany

Descartes
- France
- Deductive reasoning
- Cartesian Dualism

Bayle
- Studied religion
- Historical and Critical Dictionary
- “ Nothing can be known beyond doubt”

Bentham

Diderot
- writer, skeptical
- Encyclopedia

John Locke
- Essay: concerning Human Understanding
- Second Treatise of Civil Government
- Tabula Russa ( Blank Tablet)

Voltaire
- insulted regent of France
- he was imprisoned

Rousseau
- committed to individual freedom
- ideas influenced romantic movement

Montesquieu
- The Persian Letters
- The Spirit of Laaws
- despotisms can be avoided by separation of power

D’Holbach
-

Newton
- Principia ; Mathematical Principles of Natural Philos.
- Laws of Gravitation

Madame du Chatelet
- published scientific articles and translations

Geoffrin
- one of the most famous salons
- unofficial grandmother of Encylopedia

Describe major decisions or actions made by the following monarchs/political rulers...
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