Ch.36 Study Guide
1. Indianan National Congress- founded in 1885, which enlisted the support of many prominent Hindu and Muslims, at first stressed collaboration with the British to bring self-rule to India, but after the Great War the congress pursued this goal in opposition to the British. 2. Muslim League- established in 1906 with the encouragement of the British government, added a new current into the movement for national liberation. 3. Mohandas Gandhi- one of the most remarkable and charismatic leaders of the twentieth century. Gandhi grew up in a prosperous and pious Hindu household, married at thirteen, and left his hometown in 1888 to study law in London. In 1893, he went to South Africa to accept a position with an Indian firm, and there he quickly became involved in organization the local Indian community against a system of racial segregation that made Indians second=class citizens. Famous for non-violence act towards British. 4. Ahimsa & Satyagraha- Ahimsa is a philosophy of tolerance and nonviolence and developed the technique of passive resistance that he called Satagraha (truth and firmness) 5. Mahatma Gandhi- Gandhi spoke in a language that they could understand. His unique mixture of spiritual intensity and political activism appealed to a broad section of the Indian population, and in the eyes of many he quickly achieved the stature of a political and spiritual leader, their Mahatma, or “great soul.” 6. Rejection of Cast System-Gandhi was determined to eradicate the injustices of the cast system. He fought especially hard to improve the status of the lowest classes of society, the castles Untouchables, who he called harijans. 7. Harijans- The castles Untouchables, whom Gandhi called harijans. 8. Civil Disobedience (Non-Cooperation)- Under Gandhi’s leadership the congress launched two mass movements: the non-cooperation Movement of 1920-1922 and the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930. 9. Massacre at Amritsar (1919)- That the British authorities could react brutally was shown in 1919 in the city of Amritsar in Punjab, where colonial troops freely used their rifles to disperse an unarmed crowd, thereby killing 379 demonstrators. 10. The Indian Act- the British parliament enacted the Government of India Act, which gave India the institutions of a self-governing state. The legislation allowed for the establishment of autonomous legislative bodies in the provinces of British India, the creation of bicameral national legislature. 11. Muhammad Ali Jinnah- (1876-1948), an eloquent and brilliant lawyer who headed the Muslim League, warned that a unified India represented nothing less than a threat to the Muslim faith and its Indian community. 12. Pakistan- In place of one India, he proposed two states, one of which would be the “land of the pure,” or Pakistan. 13. Swaraj- Swaraj can mean generally self-governance or "self-rule", and was used synonymously with "home-rule" by Gandhi but the word usually refers to Gandhi's concept for Indian independence from foreign domination. CHINA
1. Fall of Qing Dynasty- The Qing empire fell with relative ease. Dr. Sun Yatsen, a leading opponent of the old regime, proclaimed a Chinese republic in 1912 and brieflt assumed the office of president. The dynasty was dead, but there remained the problems of how to bury it and what to put in its place. 2. Revolution of 1911- The revolution of 1911 did not establish a stable government. Indeed, the republic soon plunged into a state of political anarchy and economic disintegration marked by the rule of warlords, who were disaffected generals from the old imperial Chinese army, and their troops. 3. Dr. Sun Yatsen- (1866-1925_. A leading opponent of the old regime, proclaimed a Chinese republic in 1912 and briefly assumed the office of president. 4. The Guomindang (Nationalist Party)- the political party founded in 1911 by Sun...
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