Study Guide: Hybrid Primates

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Test Two Study Guide

I.Primates
A.Characteristics
1.Non human primates are very intelligent
2.Give human test and they do well
3.Gorillas are gentle and peaceful and don’t eat meat but they can rip you to pieces if they get mad 4.Chimpanzees are mean very aggressive and very strong and when they snap they will literally rip your face off 5.4 different groups of Primates

i.Prosimians
ii.New World Monkeys
iii.Old World Monkeys
iv.Apes
B.Taxonomy: Proposed Changes
1.Name change in primate suborders—The traditional classification said there were two sub categories known as prosimii and anthropoidea. The proposed change said that the names would become strepsirrhini and haplorrhini (respectively). This would move the tarsiers. 2.Name change in Primate Suborders:

i.Traditionally: Prosimii / Anthropoidea
ii.Proposed: Strepsirrhini / Haplorrhini
a.This change moves tarsiers (Under the new classification, tarsiers would now be moved to monkeys and apes due to genetic data. ) 3.The original taxonomy had humans separated form apes, but if you look at the genetic information, the orangutan is more genetically different to apes than humans. A reclassification of the great apes has been proposed. Traditionally, there was pongidae and hominidae (where apes and humans are classified separately). The proposed change is that all of the great apes become classified into hominidae, and then separate them out at different subfamilies and tribes. 4.Reclassification of the Great Apes (Family Names):

i.Traditionally: Pongidae / Hominidae
ii.Proposed: All Hominidae, different subfamilies and tribes C.Primate studies
1.Descriptive: describing the variation between primates, researchers were describing the variation that they observed (1920s & 40s) 2.Observational: time period of long term observational studies, in order to observe what primate life was like i.Jane Goodall: known for study of chimps but mainly chimp social behaviors (started in 1960 in Africa) she was hand picked and has spent decades studying the chimps ii.Dian Fossey: worked with mountain gorillas, she observed that the gorillas are not savage beast and they are mostly vegetarian 3.Theoretical framework: your researching something specific and you go out into the field with a question i.Behavioral ecology (Socioecology)

a.theoretical paradigm that looks at the relationship between the environment and behavior ii.Sociobiology
a.Theoretical paradigm that looks at the relationship between genes and behavior

D.Primate Characteristics Relative to Other Mammals
1.Limbs and Locomotion
i.Erect posture- they are upright whether they are sitting, standing, or moving about. ii.Hands and Feet- most primates have 5 digits on the end of each limb. a.Prehensile- one of the digits is opposable, which is the ability to grasp or pick something up. They generally have nails instead of claws, and enhanced sensory abilities on the ends of fingertips, and toes. 2.Flexible Limb Structure

i.Refers to the anatomy structural and muscular, allows lots of ways to get around a.Quadrupedalism: using all four limbs to walk around (Knuckle walking, slow climbing) b.Leaping/Jumping: using hind limbs to move around

c.Brachiation: using upper body to move (like monkey bars) d.Bipedalism: walking on two feet (sometimes hard to distinguish between leaping) 3.Senses and Brain
i.Manifested increased reliance on Vision
a.Anteriorly facing position of eye orbit (means farcing forward) b.Depth Perception
c.Color Vision
ii.Decrease reliance on smell
a.Reduced olfactory structures in the brain
b.Reduction of the snout
iii.Encephalized
a.Larger brain size relative to the size of the body
b.Our brains are relatively big compared to the size of our bodies c.Dolphins are most encephalized
4.Maturation, Learning and Behavior
i.K-Selected (vs. r-selected)
a.K-Selected:...
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