Study Guide for Human Nutrition Test

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HUN1201 Exam III Study Guide
Chapter 14
1) Fuel/energy needs for Physical Activity (different intensities), during and post exercise

-Adenosine triphosphate (ATP):
oThe energy-carrying molecule in the body
(ATP must be generated continuously since muscles store only enough ATP for 1–3 secs of activity) -Creatine phosphate (CP):
Stores energy that can be used to make ATP
3−15 seconds of maximal physical effort
*(0-3 sec) 100% ATP/CP
*(10-12 sec) 50% ATP/CP 50% Carbohydrates
*(4-6 min) 6% ATP/CP 94% Carbohydrates
*(32-40 min) 100% Carbohydrates
*(2-3 hr) 75% Carbohydrates, 20% Fat, 5% Other
*(5-7 hr) 65% Fat 35% Carbohydrates

-After creatine phosphate, glucose is the next source of energy for ATP production -Glucose provides ATP
Glycolysis
-Glucose source during exercise:
Muscle glycogen & blood glucose
Glycogen stores are limited
-Triglycerides (fats) can be metabolized to generate ATP
For low-intensity exercise
For exercise of long duration (marathons)
2x more energy/g as CHO
Slow in breaking down
Primary energy source during rest, sitting, and standing in place; also endurance events.

****Carbohydrates are mostly used for high-intensity activity ****Fats are used for low-intensity exercise
****Proteins (amino acids) are not used as a fuel source for exercise

2) Nutrient needs for vigorous exercise
Carbohydrates needs
-Athletes
45−65% of total energy from CHO
-Following exercise:
CHO + PTN
Enhance muscle protein synthesis
Optimize glycogen storage
First 4−6 hours of recovery
-Complex, less-processed carbohydrates: whole grains, fruits, and vegetables supply fiber, vitamins, and minerals **** When a low carbohydrate is consumed, glycogen stores cannot be restored during a period of regular vigorous training.

****Training Effects on Fat Metabolism
Increased number and activity of enzymes involved in fat metabolism •Improved ability of muscles to store fat
Improved ability to extract fat from the blood for use during exercise •Spares CHO for prolonged, intense training or competition

Protein Needs
-Increased for athletes
-Recreational endurance athletes
Equal or slightly higher than the RDA
-Young athletes who are growing
High-PTN, low-CHO diet for athletes
NOT recommended
Too low in energy & CHO to support training & performance

3) Effects of dehydration and Heat Illnesses
Fluid Needs
*****Functions of water
Lubricant that bathes tissues and cells
Transportation of nutrients, hormones, waste products
Component of chemical reactions
Part of body tissues (proteins and glycogen)
Temperature regulation: evaporative cooling
Symptoms of Dehydration During Heavy Exercise:
- Decreased exercise performance
-Increased level in perceived exertion
-Dark yellow or brown urine color
-Increased heart rate at a given exercise intensity
-Decreased appetite
-Decreased ability to concentrate
-Decreased urine output
-Fatigue and weakness
-Headache and dizziness

Water Balance
Heat syncope: dizziness
Heat cramps: muscle spasms
Heat exhaustion and heatstroke occur on a continuum; symptoms include: •Excessive sweating, weakness, nausea, dizziness, headache, difficulty concentrating

Chapters 8 and 7.5
1) Differences between water soluble, fat soluble vitamins, and minerals oFor each know: absorption, function, deficiencies, coenzymes, sources, toxicities EXTRA STUFF
Vitamins and minerals
Do not directly provide energy
Are needed for generating energy from macronutrients
B-complex vitamins are particularly important in assisting energy metabolism •Often function as coenzymes
Coenzyme:
oThiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, niacin, pantothenic acid, & biotin Function primarily in energy metabolism
oFolate & vitamin B12
Function in cell regeneration and red blood cell synthesis ****
Vitamins are carbon-containing compounds that regulate a wide range...
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