Study Guide: Communication

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Communication 277: Introduction to Mediated Communication Spring 2012

Study Guide for Examination #2

This study guide is organized by lecture topics. Within each topic is listed the major areas that may be included on the examination. You are responsible for the content that falls within each major area.

I. Lecture content from before Examination #1

A) Regulation of Media Content

1) Ways government can regulate speech
1. Law: passed by some government body
2. Agency regulation: FCC-Federal communications commission 3. Court decision regarding a law or regulation
4. Pressure/threats

2) Elements protecting the media
1. First amendment and specific laws/regulations
2. General prohibition of ‘prior restraint’
3. Traditions
1) Social inertia: a big change (cannot come above fast) 2) Watchdog function of the press

3) Special controls on electronic media: print versus electronic media regulation

II. Lecture content since Examination #1

A) Introduction to Media Effects Research
1) Basic effects approach
Source, message, channel, receiver, effects
1. Source: who are the institutions, owners, writers, and producers? 2. Message: what is the content?
3. Channel: how does the medium matter?
4. Receiver: who gets the message and why?
5. Effects: what happens to receivers and to society?

2) Categorizing media effects: type of outcome, intentionality, levels of outcome, duration of outcome, frequency of cause, and nature of outcome 1. Type of outcome
a. Cause change
b. Reinforce status quo (keep as who you are)
c. Prevent change (public service announcement do)
2. Intentionality
a. Intended
b. Unintended/ accidental
3. Levels of outcome
a. Micro-level: individual
b. Macro-level: more groups and societal (society level)

4. Duration of outcome
a. Short term (happens little second)
b. Long term (longer time, happens more than once)
5. Frequency of cause: how many times you have been exposed into message a. Cumulative (more than one time) multiple
b. Non-cumulative (base on taking one)
6. Nature of outcome
a. Cognitive (do with fighting against what we believe) b. Affective (do with emotion or feeling)
c. Behavioral (perform)
EX. The table is soft, but I think it is hard (cognitive); “I don’t like tables any more” (affective); I will not buy it. (Behavioral)

3) Phases of effects research: research topics, theories, and typical research in the direct effects era, limited effects era, and conditional effects era 1. Direct effects era
Research topics and theories
a. Looking at political propaganda
b. Media perceived to be influential
c. EX. “Hypodermic needle” and “magic bullet” theories (media are powerful) Research: research focus on content of media; little research on media effects 2. Limited effects era

Research topics and theories
a. Why are media not powerful?
b. Ex. Selective exposure and selective retention theories Typical research: survey and content analysis
3. Conditional effects era
Research topics and theories
a. Looking for more subtle effects
b. Looking for conditions when effects may occur
Typical research: broadened range of methods

B) Research Methods Overview
1) Basic problems in media effects research
1. Problems of exposure: when someone consume the message, different level of exposure. 2. Problems of measurement
3. Problems of causality (you like to try everything)

2) Causal models: basic one-way model, supplemental models, and alternative causal models 1. Basic one-way model
X- cause, independent (nature)
Y- effect, dependent...
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