Study Guide Anatomy

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A & P II

Chapter 19: Blood; Checkpoint Questions (1-24)

1. List five major functions of the blood. Five major functions of the blood are: transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes; regulating the pH and ion composition of interstitial fluid; restricting fluid losses at injury sites; defending against toxins and pathogens; and stabilizing body temperature. 2. Identify the composition of the formed elements in blood. The composition of the formed elements in blood are: RBCs, WBCs, and platelets. 3. What two components make up whole blood? The two components that make up whole blood are: plasma and formed elements. 4. Why is venipuncture a common technique for obtaining a blood sample? Venipuncture is a common sampling technique because superficial veins are easy to locate, the walls of veins are thinner than those of the arteries, and blood pressure in veins is relatively low, so the puncture wound would seal quickly. 5. List the three major types of plasma proteins. The three major types of plasma are proteins: albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen. 6. What would be the effects of decrease in the amount of plasma proteins? A decrease in the amount of plasma proteins in the blood would lower plasma osmotic pressure, reduce the ability to fight infection and decrease the transport and binding of some ions, hormones, and other molecules. 7. Which specific plasma protein would you expect to be elevated during a viral infection? During a viral infection you would expect the amount of immunoglobins in the blood to be elevated. 8. Describe hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein composed of four globular subunits, each bound to a heme molecule, which gives RBCs the ability to transport oxygen in the blood. 9. How would the hematocrit change after an individual suffered a significant blood loss? After a significant loss of blood amount of formed elements would be reduced. 10. Dave develops a blockage in the renal arteries that restricts blood flow to the kidneys. What effects will this have on the hematocrit? Dave’s hematocrit would increase because reduced blood flow to the kidneys triggers the release of erythropoietin, which stimulates an increase in erythropoiesis. 11. In what way would a disease that causes damage to the liver affect the level of bilirubin in the blood? Bilirubin would accumulate in the blood, producing jaundice, because diseases that damage the liver, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, impair the liver’s ability to excrete bilirubin in the bile. 12. What is the function of surface antigens on RBCs? Surface antigens on RBCs are glycolipids in the plasma membrane; they determine blood type. 13. Which blood type can be safely transfused into a person with type O? Only type O blood can be safely transfused into a person whose blood type is O. 14. Why can’t a person with type A blood safely receive blood from a person with type B blood? If a person with Type A blood receives a transfusion of Type B blood, which contains anti A antibodies, the red blood cells will agglutinate, potentially blocking blood flow to various organs and tissue. 15. Identify the five types of white blood cells. The five types of WBCs are: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. 16. Which type of white blood cell would you find in the greatest number in an infected cut? An infected cut would contain a large number of neutrophils, phagocytic WBCs that are the first to arrive at the site of an injury. 17. Which type of cell would you find in elevated numbers in a person who is producing large amounts of circulating antibodies to combat a virus? The blood of a person fighting a viral infection would contain elevated numbers of lymphocytes because B lymphocytes produce circulating antibodies. 18. How does basophils respond during inflammation? During inflammation, basophils release a variety of chemicals, including histamine and...
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