History of Christianity
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The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, its followers and the Church with its various denominations, from the first century to the present. Christianity emerged in the Levant (now Palestine and Israel) in the mid-1st century AD. Christianity spread initially from Jerusalem throughout the Near East, into places such as Syria, Assyria,Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Asia Minor, Jordan and Egypt. In the 4th century it was successively adopted as the state religion by Armenia in 301, Georgia in 319, the Aksumite Empire in 325, and the Roman Empire in 380. It became common to all of Europe in the Middle Ages and expanded throughout the world during Europe's Age of Exploration from the Renaissance onwards to become the world's largest religion. Today there are 2 billion Christians, one third of humanity.Christianity divided into the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church in the Great Schism of 1054. The Protestant Reformation split the Catholic Church into many differentdenominations. Contents [hide] * 1 Early Christianity (c.33–325) * 1.1 Apostolic Church * 1.1.1 Early Christian beliefs and creeds * 1.2 Post-Apostolic Church * 1.2.1 Persecutions * 1.2.2 Why did Christianity succeed? * 1.2.3 Structure and the episcopacy * 1.2.4 Early Christian writings * 1.2.5 Early art * 1.2.6 Early heresies * 1.2.7 Biblical canon * 2 Christianity during late antiquity (313–476) * 2.1 Establishment of Roman orthodoxy * 2.2 Ecumenical Councils * 2.3 Christianity as Roman state religion * 2.4 Nestorianism and the Sassanid Empire * 2.5 Miaphysitism * 2.6 Arianism and Goths * 2.7 Monasticism * 3 Early Middle Ages (476–799) * 3.1 Western missioniary expansion * 3.2 Byzantine iconoclasms * 4 High Middle Ages (800–1299) * 4.1 Carolingian Renaissance * 4.2 Monastic Reform * 4.2.1 Cluny * 4.2.2 Cîteaux * 4.2.3 Mendicant orders * 4.3 Investiture Controversy * 4.4 Medieval Inquisition * 4.5 Conversion of the Scandinavians * 4.6 Conversion of the Slavs * 4.6.1 Mission to Great Moravia * 4.6.2 Conversion of Bulgaria * 4.6.3 Conversion of the Rus' * 5 Controversy and Crusades dividing East and West * 5.1 Growing tensions between East and West * 5.2 Photian schism * 5.3 East-West Schism * 5.4 Crusades * 5.5 Hesychast Controversy * 6 Eastern Orthodox captivity (1453–1850) * 6.1 Fall of Constantinople * 6.2 Isolation from the West * 6.3 Religious rights under the Ottoman Empire * 6.4 Corruption * 7 Late Middle Ages and...