B. We need to be able to add, subtract, multiply, and divide with measurements. Solve the following problems. (4 pts) 1. 3.02 cm + 5 cm + 0.002 cm = 8 cm 3. 2.0 cm x 2.00 cm x 2.000 cm = 8.0 cm3 2. 5.35 g - 0.005 g = 5.35 g 4. 7.89 g / 5.2 mL = 1.5 g/mL
B. It is often necessary to convert from one unit to another. This is easily accomplished with the right unit factor. Solve the following problems. 1. During the last six lunar landings 842 pounds of Moon samples have been collected. What is this mass expressed in kilograms? ( 2.2 pounds = 1 kilograms) (4 pts) 842 lbs x 1 kg / 2.2 lbs = 382.7272727 kg = 380 kg
2. If a 250 mL beaker weighs 95.4 g, what is the mass in kilograms? (4 pts) 95.4 g x 1kg / 1000g = 0.0954 kg = 9.54 x 10-3 kg 3. If the radius of an oxygen atom is 6.6 x 10 (5 pts) 6.6 x 10 –10 dm x 1 m / 10 dm x 109 nm/ 1 m = 6.6 x 10-2 nm -10
dm, what is the radius in nm?
C. Chemists often deal with percent problems. As long as you remember that percent refers to per 100, these problems can be solved. 1. A penny minted after 1982 is composed of copper and zinc only. If a penny has a mass of 2.507 g and is 2.50 % copper. What is the mass of zinc in the coin? (5 pts) 2.507 g x 2.50/100 = 0.062675 g of Cu 2.507 g of penny - 0.062675 g of Cu = 2.444325 g = 2.444 g of Zn (2.44 g of Zn is correct also)
D. Density is a very important concept for chemist. The density of a substance can be obtained in a chemistry laboratory. 1. A rubber stopper with a mass of 23.75 g is dropped in a 50-mL graduated cylinder that has 20.4 mL of water. After the stopper is dropped in the graduated cylinder, the water level rises to 24.7 mL. What is the density of the rubber stopper? (5 pts) 2.375 g / (24.7 mL – 20.4 mL) = 5.523255814 g / mL = 5.52 g / mL (5.5 g /mL is accepted)
We can make predictions if the density is known. 2. A glass cylinder contains four liquid layers: mercury (d = 13.6 g/mL), chloroform (d = 1.49 g/mL), water (d = 1.00 g/mL), ether (d = 0.708 g/mL). If a piece of ice (d = 0.917 g/mL) is dropped into the cylinder, where does it come to rest? Why? (5 pts) The mercury layer will be on the bottom, then the chloroform, then the water, and finally the ether. The ice will sink in the ether layer and float on top of the water layer. If the density is know, we can we can find the mass of a given volume or the volume of a given mass. 3. The density of aluminum is 2.70 g/mL. What volume will 250 g of Al occupy? What is the mass of a piece of aluminum with a volume of 250 mL? (6 pts) 250 g of Al x 1 mL / 2.70 g = 92.59259259 mL = 93 mL 250 mL of Al x 2.70 g / 1 mL = 675 g = 680 g
Using the density value we can indirectly obtain distances that are too small to measure directly. 4. A sample of aluminum foil has a length of 10.0 cm and a width of 5.7 cm. If the aluminum foil weighs 0.234 g, what is the thickness of the aluminum foil? Remember that the density of aluminum is 2.70 g/mL. (6 pts) Volume of Al = length x width x thickness = mass / density 0.234 g x 1 mL / 2.70 g = 0.0866666666 mL 0.086666666 mL / 10.0 cm x 5.7 cm = 0.001520467 cm = 1.5 x 10 –3 cm
E. Heat and temperature are two very important concepts. 1. In your own words, please state the difference between heat and temperature. What is a common unit of each? (5 pts) Heat measures the total energy of a sample and temperature measure the intensity of...