Student Information System

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CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter deals on the review of the Related Literature and studies that can be used by the researchers in examining the present study. Related Literature
The researchers cited some of the related literature made by different researchers which are quite similar to the present study. These related literatures can help the researchers in analyzing the problems that the present study will encounter in the future. Local Literature

Buenrostro (2004) stated that in order to survive and prosper in the information era, reference librarians need to possess technology skills. They must possess information technology skills to be able to make use of the different library resources that vary in types and formats.

Torrijos (2000) discussed in her article presented at the 21st Gabriel A. Bernardo Memorial Lecture Series, the various aspects of the emerging information society as it influence the qualifications and skills of information professionals brought about by the recent developments in IT. With the developments in information and communications technologies (ICT), education and training of library and information professionals were affected. Librarians are expected to manage and must provide the information programs and services to be able to support the evolving information society.

Versoza (2010), in her speech as a keynote speaker on the changing library environment of technical services, cited the changes in the library environment as brought about by technology. Technological innovations paved the way for a change from the previous physical space where traditional services of the library such as acquisition, storage, preservation, retrieval, access and display were provided to an electronic space, where services may be delivered online. Foreign Literature

Jacobson (1977) presented a framework for evaluation of institutional advancement programs. Indicators proposed in this model appear in outline from. As indicators proposed are discussed in the text, comment is made about why each indicator is worthy of inclusion. Then measurement is considered. If measures have been applied, examples are given of measures in use. He included three categories of variables – effort, performance and effects. Effort (Institutional commitment). This category examines the extent of an institution’s commitment to institutional advancement. What is the institution putting into it? How many dollars are spent on institutional advancement? What is the allocation of material resources, such as space and equipment? What programs are offered? How many staff members are there? These items are sometimes referred as to input indicators. If the institution invests minimal effort, one can expect minimal accomplishment. The effort category includes articulation of goals, financial support, resource deployment, organization and structure, and provision for policy input. Articulation of mission, goals, and objectives. Statements of mission, goals, and objectives should be prepared at three levels: the institution, the institutional and advancement program as a whole, and the individual institution advancement programs. The philosophy of an institution toward institutional advancement is an important indicator commitment. It is obvious that the institution’s philosophy has a significant bearing on the various programs offered and the way in which they are implemented. That philosophy will evolve out of the characteristics that of higher learning differ from one another in wealth, size, location, curricula, and sources of financial support, academic standards, teaching methods, faculty characteristics, educational rationale, extra-curricular life, tradition, and major clientele served. Jacobson (1977) explained that just as the level of funding can say something about institutional commitment, so can the deployment of resources. The percentage of total university staff employed in institutional...
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