PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE DSM’S
Analysis on the validity of Autistic Disorder in Past, Present and Future DSM’s Monica Gilbert
Carlos Albizu University
Several studies were examined on the validity of Autistic Disorder in present DSM; DSM-IV-TR and on the future proposed DSM; DSM-V. Past DSM’s were also examined in order to analyze the history and pattern of the diagnostic criteria. Furthermore, studies that compared Autistic Disorder with Asperger’s Disorder and Autistic Disorder with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) were also examined in order to predict whether the proposed DSM-V would show validity in its criterion of this disorder.
Analysis on the validity of Autistic Disorder in Past, Present and Future DSM’s Introduction
Over the past years there has been a great deal of attention rendered to Autism. To some this is a fairly novel diagnosis but to others such as Leo Kanner (1943) this disorder has been around for quiet some time. The word autism comes from the Greek word “autos” which means self. Many people will usually describe a child with autism as one that likes to “keep to himself” Eugene Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist was the first to use the term Autism in 1911, who used it this term to refer to one group of symptoms of child schizophrenia (Bleuler, 1984). Later on, Leo Kanner mentioned in his description of a childhood disorder which termed autistic disturbances of affective contact that some characteristics of these children included lack of social interaction, disturbances in communication such as muteness, echolalia, and/or literal speech, fascinations with objects and ritualistic stereotypic behaviors (Kanner. 1943). Similarly as Kanner was working with Autism in 1940 another psychiatrist from Austria, Hans Asperger was also examining the disorder. In the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Asperger is also seen as a disorder that presents in the same symptomologies as autism yet Hans Asperger mentioned that there were no language delays, mostly social interaction deficits (Asperger, 1944). According to Walker, Thompson, Zwaigenbaum, Goldberg, Bryson, Mahoney, Strawbridge & Szatmari, (2004) Autism and schizophrenia remained linked in many researchers’ minds until the 1960s. It was only then that medical professionals began to have a separate understanding of autism in children. In 1980, "autism [was] categorized as a developmental disorder separate from schizophrenia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), Literature Review
Autism disorder is a fairly controversial diagnosis and one that has spurt everyone’s attention since a number of celebrities and NFL players such as; Jenny McCarthy, who sold multiple books on the disorder, Tony Braxton, Sylvester Stallone and Dan Marino who opened a center dedicated to helping children with ASD have children diagnosed with this disorder. Similarly different organizations such as: Autism Speaks and Organization for Autism Research (OAR) were constructed due to the alarming increase in children with Autism and the need for awareness to the public. Autism has also had its fair share of controversy, specifically one that stems out of this diagnosis is that it seems as though the number of children being diagnosed with this disorder is growing increasingly each year. As noted by the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions: CDC estimates that about 1 in 88 children has been identified with an ASD. These estimates from the ADDM Network are based on data collected from health and special education records of children living in 14 areas of the United States during 2008. These 14 communities comprised over eight percent of the United States population of 8-year-olds in 2008. In 2007, CDC's ADDM Network first reported that about 1 in 150 children had an ASD (based on 2002 data from 14 communities). Then, in 2009, the...