Structure and Function of Cells and Organelles

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Human Biology Unit 1 Assignment.

A cell is a small membrane enclosed structure filled with an aqueous solution where the organelles are found. Organelles are small structures within cells that perform dedicated functions. All eukaryotic cells have the following organelles: Nucleus, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, Cytoplasm, Nucleolus, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Golgi Body. Insulin is a protein compound made up of more than one chain of amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and it is these that determine the structure and function of proteins. Insulin is made within the pancreas where there are clusters of specialised cells called the islets of Langerhans. A type of cell within the islets is the pancreatic beta cell and this is where insulin is made, stored and secreted. To enable the cells to be able to produce the insulin ATP energy is required.

1. Website Image of Beta Cell - http://www.pharmabase.org Mitochondria are the organelles that make the molecules that provide the cell energy called Adenosine Tri phosphate (ATP). One of these organelles is a mitrochondrion which means threadlike granule. The mitochondria organelles are surrounded by a special bilayer membrane, this membrane controls substances moving in and out. The inner membrane folds are called cristae. There function is to increase the surface area on which the final stage of aerobic respirations take place. Inside the inner membrane is the matrix containing enzymes, a circular DNA molecule and ribosomes. 2. Website Image of Structure of Mitochondria - http://www.tutorvista.com
Insulin is produced in stages and begins in the ribosomes on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER). Ribosomes are small granules found in all cells and are made up of one large and one small subunit and comprise of rRNA. This is the only organelle not made from membranes. The ribosomes job is to...
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