1. Hampel’s Deductive-Nomological model
D-N, or deductive-nomological model is well-developed and successful for explanation of singular event. Hampel attempts to identify the process of explaining events and regularities as a process of subsuming the event or regularity under a general law, this is sometimes called “covering law” model. The fundamental intuition of explanations which are arguments offered that the event-to-be-explained had to occur given the initial conditions and the presence of certain regularities in nature. In another word, scientific explanation is an argument that has as its premises as a set of statements, which are referred to “Explanans”, that describe the initial conditions ( C1, C2, …Ck ) and contain at least one scientific law(L), and at least one sentence which is referred to “Explanandum”, describing the event-to-be-explained and that statement deductively follows as its conclusion (E). The model can diagram as follows:
Explanans: Statements of initial conditions. C1, C2, …Ck
At least one scientific law. L1, L2,.. .…Lr
Explanandum: A statement describing the event-to-be-explained. E.
However,D-N model requires logical conditions of adequacy and empirical conditions of adequacy as follows:
(R1) The explanandum must be deductively logical consequence of the explanans.
(R2) The explanans must contain at least one general law necessary for the derivation of the explanandum.
(R3) The explanans must have empirical content, i.e., it must be impirically testable.
Empirical conditions of adequacy
(R4) The sentences comprising the explanans must be true.
There are simple example of what Hampel had in mind that illustrates these conditions:
(a) All copper conducts electricity.
(b) This wire is made of copper.
(c) Therefore, this wire conducts electricity.
The explanans © follows as... [continues]
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