A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function(s) due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism), or a hemorrhage.
As a result, the affected area of the brain cannot function, which might result:
In an inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body.
Inability to understand or formulate speech.
Inability to see one side of the visual field.
Stroke can cause:
Stroke can affect people physically, mentally, emotionally, or a combination of the three.
Can lead the patient into coma,complications, and death.
physical disabilities include:muscle weakness, numbness, pressure sores, apraxia (inability to perform learned movements), difficulties carrying out daily activities, appetite loss, speech loss, vision loss, and pain
irritability, sleep disturbances, lowered self esteem, and Depression.
Strokes can be classified into two major categories:
Ischemic: Ischemic strokes are those that are caused by interruption of the blood supply
Hemorrhagic: while hemorrhagic strokes are the ones which result from rupture of a blood vessel or an abnormal vascular structure.
four reasons why this might happen:
Thrombosis (obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot forming locally)
Embolism (obstruction due to an embolus from elsewhere in the body,i.e travelling particle usually a thrombus or a form of debris)
Systemic hypoperfusion (general decrease in blood supply, e.g., in shock)
venous thrombosis: Cerebral venous thrombosis leads to stroke due to locally increased venous pressure, which exceeds the pressure generated by the arteries.
Intracranial hemorrhage is the accumulation of blood anywhere within the skull vault. A distinction is made between intra-axial hemorrhage (blood inside the brain) and extra-axial hemorrhage (blood inside the skull but outside the brain).
Intra-axial hemorrhage is due to intraventricular hemorrhage (blood in the ventricular system).
The main types of extra-axial hemorrhage are:
epidural hematoma (bleeding between the dura mater and the skull.,
subdural hematoma (in the subdural space).
subarachnoid hemorrhage (between the arachnoid mater and pia mater).
Previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
Diabetes(mellitus),High cholesterol,Tobacco, smoking.
High blood pressure(Hypertension).
Also due to drugs like cocaine,amphitamines.
Emotional factors:Anxiety,mania,psychosis,frustration, panic attacks, flat affect (failure to express emotions). Signs and symptoms:
altered smell, taste, hearing, or vision (total or partial).
drooping of eyelid.
decreased sensation and muscle weakness of the face.
altered breathing and heart rate.
weakness in sternocleidomastoidmuscle,i.e.,inability to turn head to one side.
weakness in tongue.
Loss of consciousness, headache, and vomiting.
Thrombotic stoke:caused due thrombus(a blood clot)blocking the arteries.consists of two types:
Large vessel disease:due to vasoconstriction (tightening of the artery)
Small vessel disease:lipohyalinosis (build-up of fatty hyaline matter in the blood vessel as a result of high blood pressure and aging) o
Embolic stroke:An embolic stroke refers to the blockage of an artery by an arterial embolus, a travelling particle or debris in the arterial bloodstream originating from elsewhere. An embolus is most frequently a thrombus, but it can also be a number of other substances including fat.
Systemic hypoperfusion :is the reduction of blood flow to all parts of the body.
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