String Theory Essay
Man has always had many questions regarding his surroundings. We are always curious to answer many unknowns and many will remain unanswered, but what if there was a theory that would allow us to explain at least all of nature’s forces within a single all encompassing coherent framework. What does this exactly mean? Well, explaining the universe in the most intricate and basic detail so one can stand in awe of its beauty and elegance. There is an idea floating around these days that we might have come across this unified field theory as Einstein would call it. It has been called string theory.It can explain our universe in the most basic of terms, to the most undividable element. That would mean we might be closer to examining the core of our being. Knowing the answer to that would be a giant step in our evolution. We can look forward to perhaps getting closer to answers for metaphysical questions. This now would not be the be all and end all of all knowledge, but it would explain the basic construct of everything around us. That is an astounding proposition. With our current technology we can’t clearly verify this ambitious theory, but the writer thinks that the fact that he have theorized on the subject in itself is an admirable leap forward. It might not tell us why are we here, but it’ll get us a hell of a lot closer. So what is this far reaching answer to such an all enveloping question?

Well, first we must discuss the major problem that loomed with developing such a theory. To correlate all things in the universe, one must first realize the two pillars of modern physics. First is Einstein’s general relativity and then the concept of quantum mechanics. Relativity provides a framework for understanding the universe at a large scale, we are talking about stars, galaxies and even larger objects(galaxy clusters, black holes even). Quantum mechanics does the opposite, provides a framework for the smallest of scales: such as molecules,...

...Axel Martinez
Mrs. Gallaher
English Composition
12-4-09
Strings, Strings, Everything is made of Strings
The Holy Grail of physics is to explain all the four forces of nature and matter/energy (they are both the same thing) into a single equation. This theory of everything will reveal everything about the universe, most importantly, how it began. So far the only game in town is stringtheory.Stringtheory is a purely mathematical theory that makes the bold claim that all matter and force particles are made of unimaginably tiny strings that vibrate in 10 dimensions. And the frequency which these strings vibrate determines the particle’s properties.
Stringtheory has had a very interesting beginning, although the theory didn’t get popular until the 1980’s, it was actually discovered as a mistake in the 1960’s by a young Italian physicist by the name of Gabriele Veneziano.
As the story goes, Veneziano was searching for a set of equations that would describe the strong nuclear force. The force that keeps the nucleus of an atom together, binding protons and neutrons. Veneziano was searching through math books when he found a 200 year old equation first written down by a Swiss mathematician named Leonhard Euler. Veneziano was shocked to find that Euler’s equation, long...

...
In our Honors Chemistry class, we spent the past two weeks studying StringTheory, which is a unified theory of the universe explaining all physical phenomena. It describes how all the different forces and particles can be fully captured with just a few simple principles. However, the theory is not yet fully formed and cannot successfully predict the outcome of experiments with reach of modern science. This has led to many prominent scientists questioning its legitimacy. This “Theory of Everything” has caused a heated debate amongst the world’s leading physicists and mathematicians to prove and disprove their ideas associated with StringTheory. I personally believe StringTheory is an efficient framework for explaining the inner workings of the universe and I support the associated implications that it brings with it.
StringTheory explains many of the deepest and smallest scale physics in the universe. It was first developed in 1968 by a physicist named Gabriele Veneziano who solved complex equations leading to others concluding his work was actually not a theory of infinitesimally small particles but extraordinarily tiny strings. Later work by Edward Witten and others showed how these tiny strings could be used to describe all the forces of nature and all the particles...

...deem an impossibility.
(Editor's note: Watch for our feature "The Truth About Black Holes" in the March issue of National Geographic magazine, out February 15.)
The conventional view of black holes posits that their gravitational pull is so powerful that nothing can escape from them—not even light, which is why they're called black holes. The boundary past which there is supposedly no return is known as the event horizon.
In this conception, all information about anything that ventures past a black hole's event horizon is destroyed. On the other hand, quantum physics, the best description so far of how the universe behaves on a subatomic level, suggests that information cannot ever be destroyed, leading to a fundamental conflict in theory.
No Event Horizons
Now Hawking is suggesting a resolution to the paradox: Black holes do not possess event horizons after all, so they do not destroy information.
"The absence of event horizons means that there are no black holes, in the sense of regimes from which light can't escape," Hawking wrote in a paper he posted online on January 22. The paper was based on a talk he gave last August at a workshop at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara, California.
Instead, Hawking proposes that black holes possess "apparent horizons" that only temporarily entrap matter and energy that can eventually reemerge as radiation. This outgoing radiation possesses all the original information...

...General Theory of Relativity
1). Background
General Relativity is a theory of gravitation developed and published by Albert Einstein in 1916. Once when Einstein was preparing for a review of his theory of relativity, he thought about the fact that a man falling from the roof of a building doesn't feel his own weight. This idea, which he called "The happiest thought of my life", (Brian Greene, The fabric of the Cosmos) was the reason that led Einstein to develop the theory of General Relativity.
General relativity is not a difficult theory to comprehend like most of other scientific theories, even though the mathematics of it are complex and involve curved space geometry that is not easy to understand. Albert Einstein had problems with the mathematics of this remarkable theory for few years before he got to the “precise version of his famous field equation, and this equation looks very simple, but it actually involves ten different differential equations, and cannot be used in practice as it is (Walter B. Keighton, Physics: Its Laws, Ideas, And Methods).
Albert Einstein, after publishing his final paper of relativity, he totally did not expect precise solutions for his complex equation to come. Unexpectedly, a German physicist known as the father of astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschild has found an exact solution for this equation couple months after Albert Einstein...

...
References
Betty Neuman. (n.d.). Mercer University. Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://faculty.mercer.edu/ray_jk/NUR210/NUR210Fall05/Nsg%20Theory%20Power%20Point/Betty%20Neuman.ppt..
Betty Neuman's System Model. (n.d.). Nursing Theories. Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Neuman.html
Nursing Theories and the Practice of Nursing. (n.d.). Professional Education, Testing and Certification Organization International. Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesen/nursepractice/nursepractice2.html
According to Neuman's theory person is whole who has multiple dimensions as physiological, psychological, socio-cultural, spiritual and developmental wellbeing. There is an interrelationship in between person, environment, health and illness and nursing. And the client should be treated holistically. Client consists of the individual, the family, friends, as well as the community. According to this theory, nurses should not only view the individual holistically, but should also take the family, friends, and the community into consideration.
Environment is internal and external stimuli affected by an individual, health and illness are interrelated. Internal environment being interpersonal and intrapersonal relationship, emotions, response to stress and coping mechanism. External environment being the person's surrounding .As a nurse when educating and...

...“THEORY OF EVERYTHING”, OR “THEORY OF NOTHING”?
Stephen Hawking is undoubtedly the one of the greatest minds of these times. The living legend who has changed the modern science, while also struggling with his crippling disease. This man deserves an outstanding biopic right enough, however Hollywood seems to disappoint us by making rather dull love story.
The film directed by James Marsh charts Hawking’s life between middle 60’s when he was a nerdy wonder boy till the late 90’s. The thing is that even though film lasts 2 hours, it’s even hard to say exactly what happened during this time. First of all, the director doesn’t introduce us to main character’s childhood or adolescence. We hardly know anything about his parents and how he became the genius son. Moreover, the movie doesn’t deepen or expand the most important thread, which are the Hawking’s brilliant ideas about time and space. For instance, the scene where Stephen is watching a fire and suddenly it visually transforms into explosion of black hole in his eye. Boom, and his perfect theory is ready, isn’t it too cliché for such a great mind?
What about actors then? Eddie Radmayne and Felicity Jones are in fact the best what could happen to “Theory of Everything”. Two young actors defended the movie with their high-end acting. Eddie who plays Hawking has made an amazing performance. Every single detail from halting walk to broken glasses makes him so...

...the Sample Problems for the Midterm
Exam
1. Give a regular expression that represents the set of strings over Σ =
{a, b} that contain the substring ab and the substring ba.
Solution:
a+ b+ a(a ∪ b)∗ ∪ b+ a+ b(a ∪ b)∗
(20 points)
2. Consider the following grammar G:
S → SAB|λ
A → aA|a
B → bB|λ
(a) Give a leftmost derivation of abbaab.
(b) Build the derivation tree for the derivation in part (1).
(c) What is L(G)?
Solution:
1
(a) The following is a leftmost derivation of abbaab:
S
⇒ SAB
⇒ SABAB
⇒ ABAB
⇒ aBAB
⇒ abBAB
⇒ abbBAB
⇒ abbAB
⇒ abbaAB
⇒ abbaaB
⇒ abbaabB
⇒ abbaab
(b)
S
A
S
S
A
B
a
a
B
b
A
b
B
B
a
b
B
(c)
L(G) = a(a ∪ b)∗ ∪ λ
(20 points)
3. Construct a regular grammar over the alphabet Σ = {a, b, c, d} whose
language is the set of strings that contain exactly two b-s.
Solution:
The following is a regular grammar over {a, b, c, d} whose language is
the set of strings containing exactly two b-s:
S → aS | cS | dS | bB
B → aB | cB | dB | bC
C → aC | cC | dC | λ
2
(20 points)
4. Consider the following grammar G:
S → aSA|λ
A → bA|λ
(a) Give a regular expression for L(G).
(b) Is G ambiguous? Explain your answer.
Solution:
(a) The following is a regular expression for L(G):
a+ b∗ ∪ λ
(b) Yes the grammar is ambiguous. Here are two diﬀerent leftmost
derviations for the string aabb:
S
and
⇒ aSA
⇒ aaSAA
⇒...

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STRINGTHEORY AND M-THEORY
A MODERN INTRODUCTION
Stringtheory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of stringtheory to very recent developments at the frontier of stringtheory research. The book begins with the basics of perturbativestringtheory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, and moves on to describe modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry (including Calabi–Yau compactifications) and flux compactifications, and applications to cosmology and particle physics. One chapter is dedicated to black holes in stringtheory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. The book concludes by presenting matrix theory, AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students studying modern stringtheory, and it will make an excellent textbook for a 1-year course on stringtheory. It will also be useful for researchers interested in learning about...