Moderating Effect of Loc and Type-A
International Islamic University Islamabad
In this modern world organizations, work environment and jobs become complex. This complexity raise a high level of stress induced in the organizational members (Brockner et al., 1992; Champy, 1995). Job related stress can be defined as the feelings of misfit by an individual ‘who is required to deviate from normal or self-desired functioning in work place as the result of opportunities, constraints, or demands relating to potentially important work related out-comes’(Parker and Decotiis, 1983, p.165). Work-related stress result in negative out comes and well being of individual for example health problems, decreased job performance, usefulness for organization, and increase cost (Sosik, 2000) dissatisfaction, burnout, high absenteeism, organizational commitment etc (Jamal 1999). Job stress increased in Western industrialized societies and it is most costly. In US this cost reached $150 billion per year and in UK £3000 million.
Job related stress can be visualized as imbalance between employee work and work environment. Stress arises in incongruence between work and its environment. Job stress is an individual's reactions to work environment components that appear threatening to the individual. It is a poor fit between the individual's abilities and the work environment, in which either excessive demand are regularly made of the individual or the individual is not fully equipped to handle a particular situation (Caplan, Cobb, French, Harrison, & Pinneau, 1982; Jamal & Ahmad, 1985). Stress has been defined as “any circumstance that places special physical and/or psychological demands on a person such that an unusual or out-of-the- ordinary response occurs” (Dipboye, Smith, & Howell, 1994, p. 290). Psychological stress is the negative emotional and cognitive states that occur when individuals believe that the demands placed on them surpass their ability to cope (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). In other words, negative stress may occur if an individual feels that he or she is unable to adapt to his or her situation (Hayes & Weathington, 2007). According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH; 2002), job stress has become a common and costly problem in the workplace. (Fisher,1985; Sauter, Hurrell,& Cooper, 1989). job-related stress results in organizational problems of employees' job dissatisfaction, burnout, high absenteeism and turnover, low organizational commitment, and marginal job performance (Jamal, 1984; Jamal, 1985; Jamal & Baba, 1997; Jamal & Badawi, 1995; Westman & Eden, 1996). Managerial work is also considered to be a highly stressful occupation (NIOSH); however, for managers, job-related stress is generally caused by being overloaded with work as opposed to not being in control of the job (Glowinkowski & Cooper, 1986) Stress has two forms i.e. acute stress and chronic stress. Acute stress is the form of stress which prevails for a short time and has temporary effects on the individual. For example stress to complete an assignment in due time, to meet dead lines, as faced by accountants at the end of the fiscal year or departmental clerks with the Christmas and New Year shopping rush. (Jamal & Pareena, 1998) Chronic stress is the form of stress which last for a prolonged period of time and it has some serious kind of effects on individual e.g. dysfunctional, disease (Rick, Acton, & Payne, 1988) STRESSORS:
Stressors can be understood as “stimuli that evoke the stress process” (LePine, Podsakoff, & LePine, 2005: 764). Stress has different causes that are called stressors. Stressors are work related environmental conditions which can affect work outcome of an employee/worker (Nurrac, Nelson & Simmon, 1998). Stressors are of so many types it can vary with persons to person, environment to...