1.1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
This study examines stress management among working mothers in Shomolu Local Government Area, Lagos State. Stress is an important psychological concept that can affect health, well-being and job performance in negative dimensions, (Mojoyinola, 1984; and Olaleye, 2002). Stress according to Arnold et al (1995), is a word derived from Latin word “Stingere” meaning to draw tight. It is regarded as a force that pushes a physical or psychological factor beyond its range of stability, producing a strain within the individual. Stress is the process by which environmental events (stressors or challenges) threaten us, how these threats are interpreted, and how they make us feel (Baum et al, 1997). Lazarus (1966), conceived stress to be a threat of anticipation of future harm, either physical or psychological events that lower an individual self-esteem. It is an affective behaviour and physical response to aversive stimuli in the environment. According to Selye (1976), stress is a state within the organism characterized by general adaptation syndrome. In other word, it is the nonspecific response of the body to the demand made upon it. It suggest excessive demands that produce disturbance of physiological, sociological and psychological systems. Stress may be acute or chronic in nature (Akinboye et al., 2002). It exists in different forms. It may be psychological, emotional, social, occupation or job related. Stress experienced by workers at work is called job stress. It may be due to a number of factors such as poor working condition, excessive work load, shift work, long hours of work, role ambiguity, role conflicts, poor relationships, with the boss, colleagues or subordinate officers, risk and danger, to mention a few. Certain responses indicate the presence of job stress in an individual, or group. It may manifest by the presence of headache, sleep disturbances, difficulty in concentration, short temper, upset stomach, job dissatisfaction and low morale (NIOSH, 1998). Other manifestations or indications of presence of job stress include muscular tensions and ache, tightness in the chest, high blood pressure, heat problems, snapping and arguing with others, aggressive or hostile behaviour, blaming others or administration for tension, absenteeism and high staff on job turnover. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The above mentioned manifestations can be clearly observed in working mothers, which may have negative effects on their health, personal and work behaviours. Studies has shown that working mothers who are always engrossed with so many job activities are likely to have anxiety disorders, depression, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease, certain gastrointestinal diseases, some cancers, and even the process of aging itself (Olaleye, 2002). Stress also seems to increase the frequency and severity of migraine headaches, episodes of asthma, and fluctuations of blood sugar in diabetics.
1.3AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to examine stress management among working mothers in Shomolu Local Government Area, Lagos State. Other specific objectives of this research include: 1.To investigate how job related stress affect the physical health, mental health, personal and work behaviour of working mothers in Lagos State. 2.To address the issue of how stress at work can be effectively managed, reduced, or prevented by the government and organization managements in order to enhance the physical and mental health of the working mothers or improve their personal and work behaviour. 3.To find out how the quality of service the working mothers give to their clients/customers under stressful working conditions can be improved. 1.4RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were asked on the bases of the specific objectives. 1.Will job related stress have significant effect on the physical health, mental health, personal and work...