|ASSESSMENT: |k.p/p.c | | | | |Stress is any influence which disturbs the natural equilibrium of the body and includes within its reference, physical injury, exposure,| | |deprivation, all kinds of diseases and emotional disturbance. (Wingate, 1972). Stress has been described using many different models and| | |theories. The first model is known as the fight or flight model which was founded by Walter Cannon, 1932. He discovered that when the | | |human body becomes anxious or uptight about a certain situation which has caused it distress or shock, it produces hormones to help it | | |cope. Stress affects the hormones in our body which includes; blood draining from your face, stomach churning and tension which means | | |when someone is put in a threatening position, they will either fight it or flee the situation to escape. The next model is known as the| | |Yerkes and Dodson Law, 1908. Their research found that pressure can be good when carrying out tasks as it assists to motivate and | | |stimulate your brain. Everyone copes with stress differently. Some people cope well with it while others crumble with the slightest hint| | |of stress. They found that when people were carrying out tasks with no pressure, i.e. a time scale, they responded slowly and often | | |underachieve. With just the right amount of pressure, we are able to perform well as we are more motivated in getting the task done | | |right and on time. However, with too much pressure we can become unproductive and unable to carry out the task as we become too | | |preoccupied on the stress of the situation rather that the activity itself. A further model for describing stress is Hookes Law of | | |Elasticity. “Hookes law states that in an elastic material strain is proportional to stress”. (A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced | | |Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed). It believes that the bigger the weight (stress), the more you will hang on causing a much | | |bigger stretch (strain). It states that everyone has an elastic limit and if this limit is exceeded then we begin to spiral out of | | |control. The last model is known as the Holmes and Rahe model, 1960. Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe looked at whether stress was a | | |contributing factor to illness. To identify this, they took 5000 medical students and made a list of 43 life events called LCU (life | | |change units), which could cause stress to a person. They called this, “the social readjustment rating scheme”. Each of these LCU’s had | | |a different “weight”. They asked the students to say whether they had experienced any of these over a 2 year period. When adding up the | | |number of the life events and the total weight for each event, it was found that the more likely stress is to cause illness. | | |Stress comes in many shapes and forms. There are both internal and external types of stressors which could be made worse depending on | | |your personality types. There are three different types of personalities, type A, B and C. Type A personality generally lives at a | | |higher stress level. This is driven by the fact they enjoy achievement, with greater achievement of more difficult goals, they are | | |highly competitive and work really hard to avoid failure. Type B...
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