Stress and Homeostasis

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STRESS, ADAPTATION, HOMEOSTASIS

I. Definition
STRESS-Condition in which the person experiences changes in the normal balanced state. STRESSOR- any event or stimulus that causes an individual to experience stress.

COPING STRATEGIES/ RESPONSES/ MECHANISMS- Referred to as the responses when a person faces stressors.

II. MODELS OF STRESS

1. RESPONSE-BASED (Selye)
2. TRANSACTION-BASED (Lazarus, Folkman)
III. SOURCES OF STRESS
1. EXTRINSIC or external stressors:Originate from outside of the person E.g. hot room temperature, quarrel, a death in the family

2. INTRINSIC or internal stressors:Originate within a person E.g. cancer, feelings of depression, guilt

3. Developmental stressors: Occur at predictable times throughout an individual’s life Achieving independence, choosing a career, getting married,

3. Situational stressors:Are unpredictable and may occur at any time during life Death of a family member, marriage or divorce

IV. CHARACTERISTICS OF STRESS
1. Fabric of daily life
2. Is not a nervous energy
3. Man tends to adapt to stress
4. Not always something to be avoided- (eustress – protects health) 5. Does not always lead to distress (damaging stress)
6. A single stress does not cause a disease
7. Stress may lead to another stress
8. A stress, whenever prolonged or intense may lead to exhaustion

V. FACTORS INFLUENCING MANIFESTATIONS OF STRESS
1. Nature & intensity of stressor
2. Perception of the stressor
3. Duration of exposure to stressor
4. # of stressors experienced at a time
5. Previous experience with a stressor
6. Age
7. Support people
VI. Homeostasis
(W.B. Cannon)
Tendency of the body to maintain a state of balance or equilibrium while constantly changing

VII. CLASSIFICATION OF HOMEOSTASIS

A. PHYSIOLOGIC –
Characteristics of homeostatic mechanisms
1. Self – regulatory (come automatically)

2. Compensatory (counterbalancing)

3. Regulated by feedback mechanism

4. Require several feedback mechanism to correct one physiologic imbalance

2 major homeostatic regulators
a. Autonomic nervous system- Sympathetic & parasympathetic

b. Endocrine system: Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas & adrenal glands

c. Plus organ systems as respiratory, cardiovascular, GI & renal VIII. Adaptation: Adjustments that a person make in different situations a. Modes of adaptation
1. Physiologic:GAS & LAS; Compensatory physical changes 2. Psychologic:Involves a change in attitudes or behavior 3. Sociocultural: Involves changes in the person’s behavior in accordance with norms, conventions & beliefs of various groups 4. Technological:Involves the use of modern technology

b. Characteristics of the Adaptive Mechanism
1. Are attempts to maintain homeostasis
2. Is a whole body or total organism response
3. Has limits
4. Requires time
5. Vary from person to person
6. May be inadequate or excessive
7. May be egocentric and tiring

IX. GENERAL ADAPTIVE SYNDROME

GENERAL ADAPTIVE SYNDROME

GENERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MECHANISMS

SAMR
X. Physiologic Indicators of stress
1. Increased mental alertness
2. Dilated pupils
3. Dryness of the mouth; thirst
4. Tachycardia ; increased cardiac output
5. Bronchodilation; hyperventilation
6. Peripheral vasoconstriction; increased BP
7. Pallor, cold clammy skin, diaphoresis
8. Physiologic Indicators of stress
9. Hyperglycemia due to glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis 10. Decrease peristalsis; constipation or flatus
11. Decrease secretion of insulin & pancreatic enzymes 12. Urinary output decreases
13. Muscle tension increases ready for defense
GENERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MECHANISMS

ADRENOCORTICAL RESPONSE
GENERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MECHANISMS

NEUROHYPOPHYSEAL...
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