Stress Among Working Women

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STRESS MANAGEMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PUBLIC SECTOR BANK EMPLOYEES IN CHENNAI RAJENDRAN JAYASHREE
INTRODUCTION Today workplace stress is becoming a major issue and a matter of concern for the employees and the organizations. It has become a part of life for the employees, as life today has become so complex at home as well as outside that it is impossible to avoid stress. Selye [1936] defines stress as “a dynamic activity wherein an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand”. Organisational stress arises due to lack of person- environment fit. When organizational stress is mismanaged, it affects the human potential in the organization. It further leads to reduced quality, productivity, health as well as wellbeing and morale. Thus, Stress is inevitable in our society. Researchers on stress make it clear that, to enter in to the complex area of stress, especially in to the area of occupational stress, is very difficult. Stress is an unavoidable consequence of modern living. With the growth of industries, pressure in the urban areas, quantitative growth in population and various problems in day to day life are some of the reasons for increase in stress. Stress is a condition of strain that has a direct bearing on emotions, thought process and physical conditions of a person. Steers [1981] indicate that, “Occupational stress has become an important topic for study of organisational behaviour for several reasons.” 1. Stress has harmful psychological and physiological effects on employees, 2. Stress is a major cause of employee turn over and absenteeism, 3. Stress experienced by one employee can affect the safety of other employees, 4. By controlling dysfunctional stress, individual and organisation can be managed more effectively. During the past decade, the banking sector had under gone rapid and striking changes like policy changes due to globalisation and liberalisation, increased competition due to the entrance of more private (corporate) sector banks, downsizing, introduction of new technologies, etc. Due to these changes, the employees in the banking sector are experiencing a high level of stress. The advent of technological revolution in all walks of life coupled with globalisation, privatisation policies has drastically changed conventional patterns in all sectors. The banking sector is of no exemption. The 1990s saw radical policy changes with regarding to fiscal deficit and structural changes in India so as to prepare her to cope with the new economic world order. Globalisation and privatisation led policies compelled the banking sector to reform and adjust to have a competitive edge to cope with multinationals led environment. The implications of the above said transformations have affected the social, economical and psychological domains of the bank employees and their relations. Evidence from existing literature states that more than 60% of the bank employees have one or other problem directly or indirectly related to these drastic changes. All the factors discussed above are prospective attributes to cause occupational stress and related disorders among the employees. Although a lot of studies have been conducted on the psychosocial side of the new policy regime in many sectors, there are only few studies, as far as the banking sector is concerned, while the same sector has been drastically influenced by the new policies. In this juncture, the present study is undertaken to address specific problems of bank employees related to occupational stress. This throw light in to the pathogenesis of various problems related to occupational stress among bank employees. II. REVIEW OFLITERATURE According to Douglas [1980], stress is defined as any action or situation that places special physical or psychological demand upon a person. Van Fleet [1988], stress is caused when a person is subjected to unusual situations, demands, extreme expectations or pressures that are difficult to handle.

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