Strength and Weakness

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ELECTRO-CERAMICS AND STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

NAME : RIFAD M.Z.M
INDEX NO : 100835N
FIELD : EARTH RESOURCES
DATE OF SUB : 03-11-2011

ELECTRO-CERAMICS
The term Electro-ceramic is used to describe ceramic materials that have been specially formulated for specific electrical, magnetic, or optical properties. There are a wide variety of ceramic materials that have electromechanical, electrochemical, electromagnetic, electro-optic or other electric responses.

Features of Electro-ceramics
* Based on well-defined and high purity raw materials.
* Making mould able paste by mixing binder, plasticizer, solvent and dispersant. * Fired at high temperature.
The performance of electro-ceramic materials and devices depends on the following things. * complex interplay between processing,
* chemistry,
* structure at many levels and
* Device physics.
Electro-ceramics are categorized under new ceramics. These kind of ceramics highly applicable in engineering applications.
Advantages of Electro-ceramics
* Much higher torque compared to the conventional drives of the same volume. * Generation of low speeds, adjustable down to zero, without the need for gearing. * No loss of torque at high or low speed.

* Large holding torque at rest without additional energy supply. * Extremely high dynamics and excellent controllability.
* Completely lack of inertia and practically instantaneous moving in any direction. * Quiet running in the audibly range.
* Compact design and high degree of miniaturization.
* Simple mechanical components.
* No magnetic field and hence no electromagnetic disturbance.

Applications of Electro-ceramics

The perovskite families of materials are important in many electro-ceramic applications. Perovskite based ceramics are used in ferroelectric, pyro-electric, piezoelectric, superconductor, thermoelectric, dielectric, magnetic, linear and nonlinear electro-optic devices.

Their properties can be tailored to operation as insulators, ferroelectric materials, highly conductive ceramics, electrodes as well as sensors and actuators.
The applications of ceramics in the electronics industry can be divided into two groups, as follows. 1. The use of materials for interconnection and packaging of semiconductor circuits. 2. The use of ceramics in circuit components which perform a function in their own right, such as capacitors and sensors.

The former application forms a large market and has been well reviewed elsewhere. The latter is particularly interesting because the materials which are used for a very wide range of applications are in many cases closely related in crystal structure. Electro-ceramics can be used as, * Actuators and sensors

* Semiconductors, electrical conductors, ion conductors, insulators, superconductors * Magnets, control magnetic fields
* Fiber optics
* Voltage and current regulators
Common Applications for Electro-ceramics are,
* Insulator
* Resistor
* High dielectric constant capacitors
* Piezoelectric sonar transducers
* Ultrasonic transducers
* Radio & communication filters
* Medical diagnostic transducers
* Ultrasonic motors
* Electro-optic light valves
* Thin-film capacitors

* Ferroelectric thin-film memories
Electro-ceramics find applications in automotive, computers, cellular phones, ultrasonic detection, energy conversion and many other industries.

STRUCTURAL CERAMICS
Structural ceramics are the common engineering ceramic which is used in many manufacturing process. Therefore as an...
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