|S.NO |TITLE |PAGE NO | |1 |Introduction |1 | |2 |Solar Energy |4 | |3 |Photovoltaics |24 | |4 |Solar Cell |28 | |5 |Solar Roadway |51 | |6 |Component description |55 | |7 |Working of Project |82 | |8 |Conclusion |86 | |9 |Images |91 | |10 |Bibliography |93 |
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent energy problems the world now faces. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaic (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaics convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. A Street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or walkway, which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night. Modern lamps may also have light-sensitive photocells to turn them on at dusk, off at dawn, or activate automatically in dark weather. In older lighting this function would have been performed with the aid of a solar dial. It is not uncommon for street lights to be on posts which have wires strung between them; such as on telephone poles or utility poles. New street lighting technologies, such as LED or induction lights, emit a white light that provides high levels of scotopic lumens allowing street lights with lower wattages and lower photopic lumens to replace existing street lights. Photovoltaic-powered LED luminaires are gaining wider acceptance. Preliminary field tests show that some LED luminaires are energy-efficient and perform well in testing environments. This project is a LED based Solar Lights is an automatic street lightening system using a LDR and 6V/5W solar panel. During day time, the internal rechargeable battery receives charging current from the connected solar panel. Here IC 555 is wired as a medium current inverting line driver, switched by an encapsulated light detector (LDR). When ambient light dims, the circuits drive the white LEDs. When the ambient light level restores, circuit returns to its idle state and light(s) switched off by the circuit. Block Diagram:
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent energy problems the world now faces.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a...