Phase 1 Research Report - Executive Summary
Strategies for Creative Spaces is a collaborative project between the cities of London and Toronto. A joint venture between the London Development Agency (Creative London and the Evidence & Evaluation Team), the City of Toronto and the Ontario Ministries of Economic Development & Trade, and Culture.
This project will develop strategies to enhance the growth and development of creative spaces in both cities. Drawing on international best practices identified through a combination of desk and field research, the project will identify optimal strategies for building the necessary infrastructure and environment in which creativity can flourish.
The project is being carried out in three phases between December 2004 until March 2006.
Phase 1 – literature review and global scan of creative city and cluster strategies, policies and projects. Identification and evaluation of the key success factors and ‘levers’ that are used internationally to pursue and sustain the development of the creative cluster.
Phase 2 – drawing on the findings of phase 1, a comparative analysis and evaluation of the approaches taken by selected case study cities, including study tours of Barcelona, Berlin and New York, as well as London and Toronto themselves, and how they might be transferred and applied to both cities.
Phase 3 – the development and refinement of city specific strategies for developing and sustaining creative spaces and stimulating the creative cluster in London and Toronto.
The following is a summary of the findings of Phase 1. Material from over 50 cities in over 75 countries has been analysed in terms of the rationales used for policies and projects in order to assess where good practice and transferable examples may exist. An online database of published evidence has been created and is available at www.citiesinstitute.org/creativespaces. This executive summary and the full report will be available for download at: www.creativelondon.org.uk from 30 September 2005.
• The creative industries are now universally identified as an economic cluster worldwide • The creative industries is commonly added to leading edge or growth sectors such as financial services, ICT, hi-tech, biotech, signifying the existing strength and potential of a regional economy • Structural change can stimulate creative responses and policy-led investment • Growth is also linked to market demand - sustaining creative industries development requires a growing economy, affluence and investor confidence • There is increased collaboration between creative industries sectors - but the greatest scope for growth and innovation exists between the creative industries and other sectors.
2.Rationales for policy and strategic intervention
• Interventions are predominantly justified in terms of economic development and employment creation, followed by improvements in infrastructure, regeneration, tourism/events and education & training including ‘talent’ generation. Other policy rationales include city branding and heritage. • Increasingly, creative spaces strategies have multiple policy objectives, including social inclusion, access and quality of life. • The creative sectors cited most frequently were Film/TV, ‘Arts’, Music, Media and Design.
3.Mechanisms used to meet these growth objectives include:
• Provision and protection of property and premises/workspace for artists and creative production • Business development, advice and network-building
• Direct grants/loans to creative business and enterprises • Fiscal incentives and leverage
• Physical infrastructure - including investment in transport, ICT, urban design and the public realm • Investment in the soft infrastructure of education, training, standard setting and regulation
4.Factors which determine...