1. INTRODUCTIONabout the sector that we will analyze
BRIEF TOYOTA BACKGROUND
Toyota Motor Corporation is a famous Japanese multinational corporation, and is considered the world’s second largest automaker of automobiles, trucks, buses, robots, and providing financial services ( 2007). Its founder is Kiichiro Toyoda, born in 1894, and the son of Sakichi Toyoda, who became popular as the inventor of the automatic loom. Kiichiro inherited the spirit of research and creation from his father, and devoted his entire life to the manufacture of cars. After many years of hard work, Kiichiro finally succeeded in his completion of the A1 prototype vehicle in 1935, which marked the beginning of the history of the Toyota Motor Corporation ( 2007). The first Type A Engine produced in 1934 was used in the first Model A1 passenger car in May 1935 and the G1 truck in August 1935, and led to the production of the Model AA passenger car in 1936. In addition to being famous with its cars, it still participates in the textile business and makes automatic looms that are now fully computerised, and electric sewing machines that are available in different parts of the world. It has several factories around the world, which serve to manufacture and assemble vehicles for local markets. The corporation’s factories are located in countries such as the United States, Australia, Canada, Poland, France, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Turkey, South Africa, Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Mexico, Japan, Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Mexico, Malaysia, Thailand, China, Vietnam, and the Philippines. Despite the many locations of its factories, its headquarters is located in Toyota, Aichi, Japan (2007). It invests a great deal of time and effort in its research into cleaner-burning vehicles, such as promoting a Hybrid Synergy Drive and running a Hydrogen fuel cell in its vehicles (2007). It has significant market shares in developed countries, such as the United States, Europe, Africa and Australia, and has significant markets in South East Asian countries. Its brands include the Scion, its division in the United States, Guam and Puerto Rico, and the Lexus, which is Toyota’s luxury vehicle brand ( 2007). Aside from producing cars and other types of automobiles, such as SUVs and coasters, Toyota also, participate in rallying or racing. The company’s presence in Motorsport can be traced to the early 1970s, when Ove Andersson, a Swedish driver, drove for Toyota during the RAC Rally in Great Britain, and in succeeding years, Toyota Team Europe was formed ( 2007). Up to the present, Toyota cars are still being used in a variety of racing events in different countries around the world. These events include the CART in Vancouver, the Le Mans, the Indy Racing League, the NASCAR, and the Toyota F1 Series (2007). As the leader in the industry of automobile manufacture and production, the company adopts a philosophy in terms of its production system, which is named The Toyota Way. The company’s philosophy in production involves a list of fourteen principles that are implemented in the company, and serve as guides to the operation of the company. This includes the following principles: * Base the company’s management decisions on a long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term goals; * Foster a continuous process flow to sight problems;
* Utilise “pull” systems to prevent over-production;
* Level out the workload of the workforce;
* Build a culture that stops to fix problems, in order to get quality perfect at the first try; * Standardised tasks are the company’s foundation for its continuous improvement and the development of the employees; * Use visual control to let problems surface;
* Use reliable and tested technology, which serves both the people and the company’s processes; * Train leaders who understand the company’s work, live its philosophies, and share it to others;...