Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect
Expert Systems with Applications
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/eswa
An efﬁcient image interpolation increasing payload in reversible data hiding Chin-Feng Lee ⇑, Yu-Lin Huang
Department of Information Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung 41349, Taiwan
a r t i c l e
i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Image interpolation is a very important branch in image processing. It is widely used in imaging world, for example, image interpolation is often used in 3-D medical image to compensate for information insufﬁciency during image reconstruction by simulating additional images between two-dimensional images. Reversible data hiding has become signiﬁcant branch in information hiding ﬁeld. Reversibility allows the original media to be completely restored without any degradation after the embedded messages have been extracted. This study proposes a high-capacity image hiding scheme by exploiting an interpolating method called Interpolation by Neighboring Pixels (INP) on Maximum Difference Values to improve the performance of data hiding scheme proposed by Jung and Yoo. The proposed scheme offers the beneﬁts of high embedding capacity with low computational complexity and good image quality. The experimental results showed that the proposed scheme has good performance for payload up to 2.28 bpp. Moreover, the INP yields higher PSNRs than other interpolating methods such as NMI, NNI and BI. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Reversible data hiding Steganography Image interpolation
1. Introduction Data hiding is an information security technology used for protecting information not to be perceptible, where a sender can use the data hiding technique to hide information from being detected, stolen, or damaged by unauthorized users during transmission via public networks. Data hiding is able to avoid detection that is lacking in traditional encryption. Existing data hiding techniques can be classiﬁed as irreversible (Chan & Cheng, 2004; Chen, Chang, & Le, 2010; Lee & Chen, 2010; Sun, Weng, Lee, & Yang, 2011; Xin & Orchard, 2001; Yang, Weng, Wang, & Sun, 2008) or reversible (Alattar, 2004; Celik, Sharma, Tekalp, & Saber, 2005; Ni, Shi, Ansari, & Su, 2006; Tian, 2003; Weng, Zhao, & Pan, 2008). Irreversible data hiding techniques generally obtain better embedding capacity and higher image quality while reversible data hiding techniques has the advantages of restoring original image without any distortion and extracting the embedded messages of validness. The practice of data hiding technique has a number of approaches, including spatial domain, frequency domain, and compression domain. Spatial domain, in which image pixels are modiﬁed directly, is a widely used technique due to its superior payload and image quality and its low computational complexity. Image interpolation is a critical technique in image processing by which a small image is scaled-up larger. Interpolating methods stretch the size of the image by using known data to estimate val-
⇑ Corresponding author. Address: Department of Information Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, No. 168, Jifeng E. Rd., Wufeng District, Taichung 41349, Taiwan. Tel.: +886 4 23323000x4293; fax: +886 4 23742337. E-mail addresses: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org (C.-F. Lee). 0957-4174/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2011.12.019
ues at unknown points. It is only an approximation; an interpolated image will always lose some quality each time interpolation is performed (Allebach & Wong, 1996; Lee & Chang, 2010; Lee, Chang, Pai, & Huang, 2010; Lehmann, Gonner, & Spitzer, 1999; Thévenaz, Blu, & Unser, 2000; Xin & Orchard, 2001). Image interpolation is widely used in medical imaging (Lehmann et al., 1999; Thévenaz et al., 2000), digital photos, ﬁlm-scanned images and so...