Descriptive Statistics using Excel
May 2011 / Dr Rensvold
Open the Excel spreadsheet labeled "Example Database." The first page is the Data Dictionary. The Variable Label is the "handle" used for computation. The Variable Name is longer and more descriptive. The Values column shows the numerical values associated with categorical variables. In the data dictionary, you can see that the only categorical (nominal) variable is SEX. The others are ratio variables (why?)

Click on the Data tab, which opens the window with the data.

We wish to obtain descriptive statistics for these data. The next step is to click on the Data tab at the top of the window.

The Data tab presents a number of data-related options. Click on the "Data Analysis" button. If you don't see this button, the data analysis package will have to be installed. See the "Background Information" for a tutorial on how to install it.

Select "Descriptive Statistics" as shown, then click OK. This brings up the Descriptive Statistics dialog, shown below.

The program needs to know where to find the data you want analyzed. Click the icon on the right-hand side of the Input Range window. This takes you back to the Data window.

In the data window, click and drag to highlight the cells containing the data you want to analyze. Be sure to include the top line, which includes the labels. Select the cells from A1 to D13. (Excel writes this "$A$1:$D$13,") to indicate that we're talking about the cell addresses and not the data in the cells, which may change from one iteration of the test to another.)

Click the icon shown above to go back to the Descriptive Statistics dialog.

The "Input Range" window, at the top of the dialog box, now contains the range of data cells. Before clicking OK, make sure:
•
•
•

the "Group By" Columns radio button is selected.
the "Labels in the First Row" box is checked.
the "Summary Statistics" box is checked.

...Sensitivity Analysis UsingExcel
2
The main goal of sensitivity analysis is to gain insight into which assumptions are critical, i.e., which assumptions affect choice. The process involves various ways of changing input values of the model to see the effect on the output value. In some decision situations you can use a single model to investigate several alternatives. In other cases, you may use a separate spreadsheet model for each alternative.
2.1 MANUAL WHAT-IF ANALYSIS
Using this approach, you enter values into cells C4:C6 and see what the effect is on net cash flow. For example, with the predetermined price of $29, you may think that Units Sold will be in the range between 500 and 900 units. Keeping other input assumptions at base case, the corresponding Net Cash Flows are $–1,500 and $6,900. When we vary a single input assumption, keeping all other input assumptions at their base case values, we say we are doing "one at a time" or "singlefactor" sensitivity analysis. Figure 2.1 Model Display
A B 1 Controllable Input Unit Price 2 3 Uncontrollable Inputs Units Sold 4 Unit Variable Cost 5 Fixed Costs 6 7 Performance Measure Net Cash Flow 8 C $29 700 $8 $12,000 $2,700
2.2 THRESHOLD VALUES
You are usually interested in how the input assumptions eventually affect the recommended choice in the decision problem. In the professor's summer decision problem, the software alternative (uncertain payoff) is being compared...

...User Guide for Excel Modification
In this guide we are going to show you how to retrieve your e-mail in Web version of Outlook and change an excel spreadsheet. With your computer turn on, click on your web browser and type https://mail.lhup.edu/. You should have a dialog box pop up you need to click yes. A screen will open for you to enter your screen id and password. When Outlook opens on your right hand side should be a list of items you want to make sure that inbox is in a blue box, in the middle is a list of all the mail you have received. Look for a message that titled Homework 1 Spreadsheet. Click twice to open the message. You should have a dialog box opening. Look at your message; you should see in the middle a link to download an attachment. Place your pointer over the link and right click on it. Scroll down the list until it says Save Target as click on it another box should appear. We will save this to your local hard drive so while the box is open click on the My Computer icon. Then click twice on your screen name on starling\home' and hit save. When you have downloaded your attachment hit the close button. Close out any other browser or dialog box on your screen. You have just completed the first phase of your assignment.
Next we need to do is update your excel spreadsheet. So click on start find the icon that says My Computer click on it once. Then click twice on your screen name on 'starling\home' there you...

...DSC2602/1/2011
Cover: Eastern Transvaal, Lowveld (1928) J. H. Pierneef
J. H. Pierneef is one of South Africa’s best known artists.
Permission for the use of this work was kindly granted
by the Schweickerdt family.
The tree structure is a recurring theme in various branches
of the decision sciences.
Preface
Everyday life is full of decisions. What should I wear today? What should I eat? Should I buy
the red or blue shirt? Should I buy a speciﬁc house or buy a piece of land? What is the shortest
route from my house to work? . . . And many more.
Some of these decisions can be made without thinking or by guesswork. Some can be solved by
reasoning or emotions. Some are a bit more diﬃcult and may need additional information.
People have been using mathematical tools to aid decision making for decades. During World
War II many techniques were developed to assists the military in decision making. These developments were so successful that after World War II many companies used similar techniques in
managerial decision making and planning.
The decision making task of modern management is more demanding and more important
than ever. Many organisations employ operations research or management science personnel or
consultants to apply the principles of scientiﬁc management to problems and decision making.
In this module we focus on a number of useful models and techniques that can be used in the
decision making process. Two important themes run...

...Financial Analysis usingExcel
Function
Information requirements for function
Dates
Prices and par values
Frequency, and related
Yields and interest/ discount rates Discount
Any amount paid at maturity ?
Frequency of payme nts pa
First coupon
Redemption amount
Investment amount
# of periods
Settlement
Par/coupon
Maturity
COUPDAYBS COUPDAYS COUPDAYSNC COUPNCD COUPPCD COUPNUM DURATION MDURATION PRICE PRICEDISC PRICEMAT RECEIVED YIELD YIELDDISC YIELDMAT ACCRINT ACCRINTM INTRATE DISC
Excel for Professionals 2002 VJ Books. All rights reside with the author.
Interest
Basis
Issue
Yield
Price
Financial Analysis usingExcel
Financial Analysis usingExcel Financial Analysis usingExcel
Volume 6 in the series Excel for Professionals Excel for Professionals
Volume 1: Excel For Beginners Volume 2: Charting in Excel Volume 3: Excel-- Beyond The Basics Volume 4: Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel Volume 5: Statistical Analysis with Excel Volume 6: Financial Analysis usingExcel Published by VJ Books Inc
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written...

...Trajico, Maria Liticia D.
BSEd III-A2
REFLECTION
The first thing that puffs in my mind when I heard the word STATISTIC is that it was a very hard subject because it is another branch of mathematics that will make my head or brain bleed of thinking of how I will handle it. I have learned that statistic is a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of information that is expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times something happens. As I examined on what the statement says, the phrase “number of times something happens” really caught my attention because my subconscious says “here we go again the non-stop solving, analyzing of problems” and I was right. This course of basic statistic has provided me with the analytical skills to crunch numerical data and to make inference from it. At first I thought that I will be alright all along with this subject but it seems that just some part of it maybe it is because I don’t pay much of my attention to it but I have learned many things. I have learned my lesson.
During our every session in this subject before having our midterm examination I really had hard and bad times in coping up with this subject. When we have our very first quiz I thought that I would fail it but it did not happen but after that, my next quizzes I have taken I failed. I was always feeling down when in every quiz I failed because even though I don’t like this...

...
Contents
Question 1 3
Question 2a 5
Question 2b 6
Question 2c 7
Question 3a 8
Question 3b 8
Question 3c 10
Question 3d 11
Question 4 12
Question 5 14
References 15
Question 1
The sampling method that Mr. Kwok is using is Stratified Random Sampling Method. In this case study, Mr Kwok collected a random sample of 1000 flights and proportions of three routes in the sample. He divides them into different sub-groups such as satisfaction, refreshments and departure time and then selects proportionally to highlight specific subgroup within the population. The reasons why Mr Kwok used this sampling method are that the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced and it also enables to increase the accuracy at a given cost.
TABLE 1: Data Summaries of Three Routes
Route 1
Route 2
Route 3
Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean
107.15
Std Dev
5.1536687
Std Err Mean
0.3644194
Upper 95% Mean
107.86862
Lower 95% Mean
106.43138
N...

...Organization of Terms
Experimental Design
Descriptive
Inferential
Population
Parameter
Sample
Random
Bias
Statistic
Types of
Variables
Graphs
Measurement scales
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Qualitative
Quantitative
Independent
Dependent
Bar Graph
Histogram
Box plot
Scatterplot
Measures of
Center
Spread
Shape
Mean
Median
Mode
Range
Variance
Standard deviation
Skewness
Kurtosis
Tests of
Association
Inference
Correlation
Regression
Slope
y-intercept
Central Limit Theorem
Chi-Square
t-test
Independent samples
Correlated samples
Analysis-of-Variance
Glossary of Terms
Statistics - a set of concepts, rules, and procedures that help us to:
organize numerical information in the form of tables, graphs, and charts;
understand statistical techniques underlying decisions that affect our lives and well-being; and
make informed decisions.
Data - facts, observations, and information that come from investigations.
Measurement data sometimes called quantitative data -- the result of using some instrument to measure something (e.g., test score, weight);
Categorical data also referred to as frequency or qualitative data. Things are grouped according to some common property(ies) and the number of members of the group are recorded (e.g., males/females, vehicle type).
Variable - property of an object or event that can take on different values. For example,...