Abstract
This paper will review different styles of research design along with how different variables within research can be measured.

Statistics
Research Question:
Within the realms of a psychological statistics class, does blended course-delivery format result in students attaining a higher grade point average when compared to face-to-face and online delivery formats? Null Hypothesis:

Within the realms of a psychological statistics class, blended course-delivery format results in higher grade point averages than face-to-face and online delivery formats. Alternate Hypothesis:
Within the realms of a psychological statistics class, face-to-face course-delivery format results in higher grade point averages than blended and online delivery formats. Considering the performance of students is based on numeric averages, and the variables within the study will be the averages of students compared to each course-delivery format, the study will have a quantitative design. Quantitative design is researched defined in a numerical fashion (Usable Stats, 2013). Qualitative concerns will be the teacher of the course and how the information is taught within each format. Another qualitative concern that may jeopardize results would be the individual student as well. How much sleep did each student obtain before class? Are there any environmental influences keeping the individuals mind away from his/her studies?

Correlation Research Design:
This research study design would be classified as correlation research. Correlation research is where research compares one variable against another. In this particular research design, the comparison would be student performance while under three different variables: online, blended, or face-to-face course delivery format. Each format will be compared with the others through grade averages within the classroom. If this study were conducted on a multiple scale and geographically spread...

...DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL WORK
SOCI 1005 (SY16C) -INTRODUCTORY STATISTICS FOR THE
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES
SUMMER SCHOOL 2012/2013- COURSE OUTLINE
Lecturer: Ayesha Facey
Office: Room 46, Faculty of Social Sciences
Office #: 970-6324
E-mail: ayeshafcy@yahoo.com
COURSE OBJECTIVE
This course aims to introduce students to basic univariate and bivariatestatistics. A student who successfully completes this course will possess a reasonable level of knowledge of basic statistics and their interpretations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
• Adequately define statistical concepts
• Distinguish between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics
• Distinguish between qualitative data and quantitative data
• Classify data with respect to the four levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
• Create grouped frequency distributions
• Compute measures of central tendency and variation and use them to analyze data
• Calculate and interpret the correlation coefficient and equation of the least-squares regression line for bivariate data and use the results to make predictions.
• Solve probabilities
• Compute binomial distributions
• Use the normal distribution...

...The ScientificMethod- Yeast Lab
Objective:
1. To learn about the steps of the scientificmethod
2. To be more familiar with the lab equipment
3. To find what temperature can affect the respiration of yeast bubbling
Hypothesis:
1. If the temperature of the beaker is less than 10oC, then the yeast will not reproduce
2. If the temperature of the beaker is between 20-27oC, then the yeast will reproduce but slowly
3. If the temperature of the beaker is between 35-40oC, then the yeast will reproduce rapidly
4. If the temperature of the beaker is greater than 90oC but not boiling, then the yeast will barely reproduce
Materials:
Four test tubes Stoppers
Eight beakers Hotplate
Four thermometer Sugar (3.5 g)
Water (15 mL) Yeast (1.5 g)
Safety goggles Ice Bath
Weighing paper Timer
Triple beam balance
Procedure:
1. Take your test tube and add 1.5g of yeast, 3.5g sugar, and 15mL of water. (Repeat this three more times)
2. Mix the solution until it is has a smooth texture.
3. Grab four beakers and fill them with water about to the half way. Take two and place on separate hotplates, in the other place ice in, and leave one beaker untouched.
4. Once each beaker reaches the desired temperature then place the test tubes in, make sure the stopper is placed on top, and take the tip of the stopper and place into a separate beaker filled with...

...
University of New Brunswick, Saint John
Business Research Method
BA 3129
Final exam
By
Eman Ib
Instructor
Gregory Fleet
April 29, 2014
Chapter 4
After studying and extracting information from all the relevant work done previously, how does there searcher know which references, articles, and information should be given prominence in the literature survey?
For this question, the answer is the researchers should start looking for the literature survey that straight as the information from the unstructured and structured interviews that is being gathered. Also for the reviewing, the literature on the subject part of this time assistances the researcher to focus more on the interviews more importantly on certain aspects found to be important in this study.
Chapter 5
“Because literature survey is a time-consuming exercise, a good, in-depth interview should suﬃce to develop a theoretical framework.” Discuss this statement.
The literature survey its important and becoming easy to follow the progression of the research from the first step of managers knowing the broad problem part. And to initial data assembly (literature survey), to improve the theoretical framework based on the literature review and that showed by experience and instinct, to framework of hypothesis for testing the questions of the survey.
Chapter 6
6. Why is it important to consider basic research design issues before conducting the study and even as early as at the time of...

...Chapter 1 The nature of Probability and Statistics
Basics of Statistics: 1. Statistics: It is the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze and draw conclusions from data. In another words, it is a scientific field of study that provides approaches to making inferences about populations based on the examinations of smaller sets of data. a. Descriptive statistics: It consists of the collection, organization, summarization and presentation of data. Examples: sample mean, median, range, standard deviation, charts, graphs, tables, etc. b. Inferential statistics: It consists of generalizing from samples to population, performing estimations and hypothesis tests, determining relationships among variables, and making predictions. Examples: Analysis of variance, test of goodness of fit, etc. 2. Goals of Statistics: To study the population To study the variation To present the data in reduced form To apply Statistics as a research tool 3. Variable: It is the representation of some characteristic of an individual that can be measured or recorded and generally can take multiple values. Examples: height, weight, etc of people. Variables whose values are determined by chance are called random variables. a. Qualitative variables (categorical variables): They are the variables which can be places into distinct categories according to some...

...Defining What Statistics Really Is
1.1 Nature of Statistics
The term “Statistics” came from the Latin word ‘status’ which could be translated as ‘state’. The usage of this term only became popular during the 18 th century where they defined Statistics as “the science of dealing with data about the condition of a state or community”. The practice of statistics could be traced back even from the early biblical times where they gather figures related to governance of the state for they realized the importance of these figures in governing the people. Even until today, worldwide, governments have intensified their data gathering and even widen the scope of their numerical figures due to the rise of more cost-efficient methods for collecting data. Some of the most popular figures that are being released by almost all countries are Gross National Product (GNP), Birth rates, Mortality Rates, Unemployment Rate, Literacy Rates and Foreign Currency Exchange Rates. Also, the use of Statistics is not limited to government use only. Right now, almost all business sectors and fields of study use statistics. Statistics serves as the guiding principle in their decision making and helps them come up with sound actions as supported by the analysis done in their available information. Indicated below are some of the uses of Statistics in various...

...only method user knows
4) error prone. Probability of Type I increases when user does not correct for multiple tests / NHSTs; Type II influenced by large degree of sampling error
5) shady logic - modus tollens (if p then q, not q, therefore not p). If null hypothesis is true, data cannot occur. Problem is NHST is probabilistic, not deterministic
Remedy these problems by:
1) including standardized regression coefficients and model R^2 with all NHST
2) avoid using language to describe significance; let numbers tell story
3) learn other forms of hypothesis testing
4) replicate significant effects to avoid Type 1; choose large, random, representative samples to avoid Type II
Central limit theorem:
1) mean of the sampling distribution is the same as the mean of the population
2) SD of the sampling distribution is the square root of the variance of sampling distribution
3) the shape of a sampling distribution is approximately normal if either (a) N >= 30 or (b) the shape of the population distribution is normal
Multiple regression:
1) if NHST is true (m = 0), no one sample should have a very high or low m
2) Procedure - (a) assume NHST is TRUE; (b) conduct study; (c) calculate m, SE, and t; (d) p value is function of t and sample size; (e) reject NHST if p < .05 (+ or -)
3) Y’ = ∑ (mx) + b
Confidence intervals:
report a range of values (an interval value), rather than a point value (eg. a point on a distribution, like a mean). ALL...

...descriptive statistics to summarize the training time data for each method. What similarities or differences do you observe from the sample data?
Descriptive analysis in excel has been used to come up with relevant figures of the given data samples which is tabulated below:
Descriptive Statistics | Current | Proposed |
Mean | 75.06557 | 75.42623 |
Standard Error | 0.505094 | 0.32091 |
Median | 76 | 76 |
Mode | 76 | 76 |
Standard Deviation | 3.944907 | 2.506385 |
Sample Variance | 15.5623 | 6.281967 |
Kurtosis | -0.06933 | 0.58694 |
Skewness | -0.22053 | -0.28749 |
Range | 19 | 13 |
Minimum | 65 | 69 |
Maximum | 84 | 82 |
Sum | 4579 | 4601 |
Count | 61 | 61 |
Analysis of descriptive statistics shows that both the current and the proposed plan have almost similar mean completion hours which stand at 75.06 and 75.42 for the current and proposed respectively. Both the plans have exact same median and mode. However, the standard deviation in the current plan (3.94) is higher than that in the proposed plan (2.56), which is ultimately leading to the higher variance in the current plan. This suggests that the completion hours are more dispersed the mean value in the current plan, hence the mean does not give the true picture of data distribution whereas in the proposed plan, data for completion hours is comparatively more congregated.
2. Use the methods of Chapter 10 to...

...the purpose of the study is stated but it is not clearly stated according to the title of the research study. The term premature mortality used in the objective of the study is not in correlation with the title of the article. The obesity related diseases need to be mention in the objective. The title of the report is too short and it contains only eight words and it is confusing also. The title should be between 10 and 15 words long and should clearly identify for the reader the purpose of the study (Connell Meehan, 1999). The abstract of the study is not clearly mentioned here. The abstract must include details that regards to the objective of the sample size (design), method, study, findings, conclusions, recommendations, and clinical relevance. This research article mentioned only the objectives, methods, results, and conclusion.
Literature Review
The author mentioned an overview of the literature regarding the rapid rise in obesity and mentioned the rate of increase in obesity during the period of 1976-1994. The article was written in 2008, there is no current data available during that period. It is very essential to mention the recent origin studies and that is ideally less than five years. The review of literature in this article mentioned about the historical material and it is a good point in literature review. There is detailed review of literature, but there is no citations used within the text. There is no citation for the...