Statistics can be very helpful in providing interpretation of reality but also can be used to distort our understanding. Discuss some of the ways in which statistics can be used or misused in different Areas of Knowledge to assist and mislead us, and how we can determine whether to accept the statistical evidence that is present to us.

When you turn on the news, what do you hear? 1 in 10 people in South Africa have AIDS , Unemployment Reaches New High of 9.3 Percent , etc. Statistics is supposed to convey information in an objective and comprehendible way to the general population. However, this is usually not the case. Most of the present statistics use objectivity as a veil to hide the personal agendas behind the numbers.

Statistics are comprised of numbers and language, both these could be manipulated in a way to "bend" the truth.

In the mathematical sense, statistics are made from information gathered from a specific sample population that was asked a specific question, and then given an error margin. In order for the statistics to be valid, the sample population and error margins should be stated in the conclusion. Neglecting to mention any of these will cause the statistics to be misleading, for example, according to the U.S Bureau of Censes, the official unemployment rate in the U.S is 6% as of 2003. However, according to journalist Ed Finn, many groups were omitted in these government surveys, "the under-16 group, those on strike or locked out and those who weren't actively looking for work in the four weeks prior to the survey. But by far the largest groups omitted from the list of jobless in the U.S. are the working-age men who are out of work because they are in prison or on parole." After adding these groups of people, the unemployment rate comes to 11.4%, a major difference caused by concealing the sample in which the statistics was based on.

Language is another great factor that can be used to distort our understandings of the numbers...

...Statistics involves the development of methods and tests that are used to quantitatively define the variability inherent in data, the probability of certain outcomes, and the error and uncertainty associated with those outcomes. Some statistics are biased, some are based on opinions, and some are fabricated.
A common misconception is that statistics provide a measure of proof that something is true. Instead, statistics...

...How to Lie with Statistics Summary
There are some people that rely heavily on the statistical information provided by the media, government, and other research groups in order to form opinions or come to a conclusion on a particular idea or product. However they fail to realize that a lot of the time the data is manipulated in such a way that leads them to believe something that is not actually the case. Statisticscan lie in many...

...How is Research used in Psychology?
* Research in Psychology as in all fields of science has two focuses of interest.
* Basic Research = is concern with the quest for knowledge regardless of whether it has immediate practical value.
* Applied Research = seeks to improve the human condition by discovering something that can be put to practical used.
* When the scientist work, strive to find relationships between observable...

...Discuss some of the ways in which statisticscan be used or misused in different Areas of Knowledge to assist and mislead us, and howcan we determine whether to accept the statistical evidence that is presented
Statistics are numbers or figures that have been measured and are used to reach a quantitative conclusion on a subject or event. For example: the literacy rate in Ethiopia right now is...

... . And many more.
Some of these decisions can be made without thinking or by guesswork. Some can be solved by
reasoning or emotions. Some are a bit more diﬃcult and may need additional information.
People have been using mathematical tools to aid decision making for decades. During World
War II many techniques were developed to assists the military in decision making. These developments were so successful that after World War II many companies...

...descriptive statistics and how do they differ from inferential statistics?
INTRODUCTION
Statistical procedures can be divided into two major categories: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Typically, in most research conducted on groups of people, you will use both descriptive and inferential statistics to analyse your results and draw conclusions. So what are descriptive and...

..._________________________________________
How is Statistics Different from Mathematics?
And Why Is the Distinction Important?
By
Isidoro P. David
Acronyms: CHED-Commission on Higher Education; NHERA-National Higher Education Research Agenda; HEI-Higher Education Institution; PSA- Philippine Statistical Association; SRTC-Statistical Research and Training Center; UPD-SS- University of the Philippines School of Statistics; UPLB-IS-...

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