Association and Causation
Statistics is the science pertaining to the collection and analysis of data. It is the refinement of the ambiguous, the distilling of truth from the crudest of resources. For this reason, it is necessary to discern the simplest path from Point A to Point B, disregarding any unnecessary data that may lie in the path. This, however, is easier in theory than in practice, and statisticians have developed various techniques to help differentiate between causation, a variable directly related to phenomena, and association, a variable who's changes occur concurrently with the phenomena, and could be causal or non-causal.

Every morning around sunrise, the rooster crows. Does the rooster cause the sun to rise? Not likely. But, if we were to track and plot the sunrises and rooster crows every morning for a year, it would be evident that they occur concurrently. This is an association. So, then, does the sunrise cause the rooster to crow? Not necessarily. A spurious association is an association between two variables that can be better explained by a third lurking, or hidden variable. In this case, the lurking variable is territorial advertising. "Roosters crow every hour, on the hour saying, This is my coop, get the heck out of my way, don't mess with my women.' If a truck goes by, the rooster interprets the noise as that of an intrusion by another rooster. If most of the crowing takes place in early morning, it is because that is when there is the most activity." (Feldman, 1990, pp. 51-52). As you can see, association can be easily confused with causation.

Several methods have been developed to determine and analyze association. Just as the rooster and the sunset can be charted, so can other variables. When analyzing the linear relationship of these variables, the strength of their similarities is called correlation. Basically, if two variables exhibit simultaneous movement on the chart, a correlation exists. A high degree of correlation...

...analysis, other decision making techniques are discussed. These techniques
include decision analysis, project scheduling and network models.
Chapter 1 illustrates a number of ways to summarise the information in data sets, also known as
descriptive statistics. It includes graphical and tabular summaries, as well as summary measures
such as means, medians and standard deviations.
Uncertainty is a key aspect of most business problems. To deal with uncertainty, we need a basic...

...Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean...

...Trajico, Maria Liticia D.
BSEd III-A2
REFLECTION
The first thing that puffs in my mind when I heard the word STATISTIC is that it was a very hard subject because it is another branch of mathematics that will make my head or brain bleed of thinking of how I will handle it. I have learned that statistic is a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of information that is expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times...

...the written application of operation. It teaches students to think clearly, reason well and strategize effectively. Mental Mathematics is the ability to utilise mathematical skills to solve problems mentally. The marks scored by pupils generate statistics which are used by teachers to analyse a student’s performance and development of theories to explain the differences in performance.
The Standard 3 class is where the transition from junior to senior level occurs where...

...ENMA 420/520
Statistical Processes
Mid-Term
Take Home
Due 17 March 2007
Name: Student#
You may use your course textbooks, notes and appropriate computer software (e.g., Excel) in solving the problems in this take home quiz. However, all work is to be done independently with no consultation with anyone else or with anyone else’s notes. The Old Dominion University honor system is to be strictly adhered to in the preparation of the responses to this quiz. By signing...

...Design
Descriptive
Inferential
Population
Parameter
Sample
Random
Bias
Statistic
Types of
Variables
Graphs
Measurement scales
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Qualitative
Quantitative
Independent
Dependent
Bar Graph
Histogram
Box plot
Scatterplot
Measures of
Center
Spread
Shape
Mean
Median
Mode
Range
Variance
Standard deviation
Skewness
Kurtosis
Tests of
Association
Inference
Correlation
Regression
Slope...

...
PRINCIPLE OF CAUSATION
Every criminal action can be divided into actus reus, mens rea and causation. Actus reus compacts with the ‘guilty act’, mens rea with the ‘guilty mind’ and the causation compacts with the consequences of the actus. In crimes, which require consequence like murder, causation is a essential and imperative element. The absence of causation between the actus and the consequence may render...

...Causation
By Manoor Yunus & Bilal Gurjee
Factual Causation
• In ‘result crimes’ a causal link must be proved between the defendants actions
•
•
•
•
and the consequence.
There are 2 types of causation 1) Factual causation 2) Legal causation
Factual causation is where something is a cause of some kind so that ‘but for’
the thing happening the consequence would not occurred.
It must be more than a tiny or...

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